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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is phonology?
study of the production and perception of speech sounds.
Clinical phonetcis
application of phonetics in the clinic, including information necessary for transcription
Acoustic phonetics
study of speech sounds as they are perceived by the ear of listener and sound waves produced when uttered
Articulatory phonetics
(aka Physiological phonetics)
study of articulatory patterns that produce speech sounds
Perceptual phonetics
use of phonetic transcription system to transcribe speech
2-Way scoring
dichotomous decision. easiest way to score a behavior.
a description of what type of error was committed
C-SODA= correct/incorrect, subsitution, omission, distortion, addition
Phonetic Transcription
Not a way of scoring, rather a description of speech. Non-judgemental. Uses phonetic alphabet.
3 Types of writing systems
pictographic, idiographic, alphabetic
Pictographic writing system
use picture instead of words, pictures represent a message, no 1:1 correspondence, easy to interpret, not meant to represent reality, spontaneous invention.
Idiographic writing system
(aka Logographic)
may look like object it represents (like handicap sign), but not necessarily (chinese, each character has meaning which can be combined w/out regard to sound
Difference b/w Pictographic and Idiographic writing
Pictograph= spontaneous, universally understood.
Idiograph= conventional meaning pre-agreed upon w/in a society.
Alphabetic writing
use of a system of symbols, each of which represent a different sound. 1:1 correspondence b/w sound and symbol. Spanish, Russian=alphabetic; English, French= not truly alphabetic
5 reasons why English is not alphabetic (does not follow 1:1 correspondence rule)
1. multiple spellings to represent a sound(tea, tee)
2. multiple sounds for one symbol (bone, cot)
3. use of diphthongs (reenter) violates 1:1 correspondence
4. sometimes letters represent no sound (island)
5. there are sounds that are not represented by spelling (use, you)
5 reasons why spelling is NOT pronunciation
1. when talking about sounds say sounds when talking about letter say letters.
(ie: "s" sound can be represented as "c" in "circle" or "z" in "is".
2. do not base conclusions on right pronunciation on spelling ("th" not made by combining "t"+ "h")
3. Do not let knowledge of spelling distort perception of speech sounds. (no single "th" sound)
4. spelling conventions often represent somtehing different from what they indicate (better= only 1 "t" sound)
5. in phonetics, # of vowels and consonants tallied by how pronounced, not how spelled
3 systems of speech production
respiratory system
laryngeal system
supralaryngeal system
broad transcription
includes symbols to represent consonants, vowels, diphthongs
narrow transcription
all symbols used in broad transcription plus diacritics (symbols that represent slight variations in production of target sounds)
linguistic complexity
context that sound to be transcribed is embedded (isolated sound, word, sentance, conversation)
response complexity
number of target sounds to be transcribed (isolated sound or all sounds)
a phonetic variation of a phoneme (key vs coo)
the smallest meaning bearing unit of language
sounds that occur together as a pair (bookkeeper, gas suply)
Pre- and Postvocalic
Prevocalic: consonant occurs before vowel
Postvocalic: consonant occurs after a vowel
A sound produced when air is obstructed in some way before being expelled from the lungs through the oral cavity or nasal cavity.
velopharyngeal port
opening b/w orpharyngeal cavity and the nasal cavity , which can prevent nasal transmission of sound when closed.
fundamental frequency
rate of vocal fold vibration
male: 125Hz
female: 250 Hz
3 ways that consonants can be described
Voicing= vocal folds vibrate
Place= where sound is formed
Manner= how sound is formed
2 types of voicing
+ voice
- voice
7 types of placement
(see notes also)
palatal velar
4 major types of manner
(see notes also)
def. of stop
strong consonant, formed by complete closure of vocal tract with closed velopharynx so that air flow stops temporarily and air pressure builds up behind th eponts of closure
stop burst and plosive
release of impounded air after a stop producing a short burst of noise called a plosive
6 stops
see notes
a sound produced with a narrow constriction (cutting edge) through which air escapes with a continuous noise
9 fricatives (5 types)
interdental, labiodental,alveolar, palatal-alveolar, glottal see notes
a combination of sounds (stop fricative) where air pressure is built up and then released
2 affricates
see notes
sound energy created by pulses of air from the vocal folds readiate through the nasal cavities with the oral cavities closed and velopharyngeal port open.
3 nasals
see notes
any consonant sound where two articulators are brought close together but not close enough to create friction
Two types of approximants
2 liquids, def, how formed
vowel like consonants only slightly more constricted

Lateral (l)= tongue makes midline, air travels sideways

Rhotic (r)= tongue bunched not touching alveolar ridge or palate and tip curled back
3 glides, def, how formed
gliding motion of articulators from partly constricted state to more open state of following vowel

Palatal (j)
bilabial (w and M)
glottal stop
"?" without dot.
not a phoneme
"anna adams"
phonological constituent composed of zero or more consonants followed by vowel, and ending with a shorter string of zero or more consonants.
syllabic consonants
when consonants take on a syllable function, only in final position of word in an unaccented syllable.
Indicated by short vertical bar under final consonant
nonrhotic flap
latter= ladder. symbol looks like upside down "J"
light and dark /l/
light l= when tip of tong touches alveolar ridge as in "light"
dark l= occurs when there is additional arching of tongue in velar region "dull"

dark l symbolized by tilda through "l"
4 ways to describe vowel articulation
tongue height (up down)
tongue advancement(frontback)
lip configuration
two vowel sounds together in th same syllable as a two part vowel or as a vowel that changes in quality
Phonemic diphthongs
see notes
Nonphonemic diphthongs
can be reduced to a monophthong
see notes
Tense and Lax vowels
Lax vowels can only occur in closed syllables