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216 Cards in this Set

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The seven (7) leadership styles:
1) Basic
2) Two-Dimensional
3) Contingency
4) Contemporary
5) Theory X
6) Theory Y
7) Theory Z

Company Officer pg. 33
The "Basic" leadership styles are:
1) Autocratic
2) Democratic
3) Laissez-Faire

Company Officer pg. 33
How is the "Two-Dimensional" Leadership Style represented?
...by a four-quadrant chart that compares degree of job structure to the degree of employee consideration.

CO 34
Contingency Leadership Model
Developed in 1950s; belief that there is no single best leadership style; requires situation to be matched to leadership style.

CO 34
Contemporary Leadership Styles:
Charismatic - follower loyalty and enthusiasstic vision that others work to attain.
Transformational - Involves followers in change process, challenges them to attain full potential, creates follower satisfaction and growth while still meeting organizational goals.
Transactional - Leader/follower exchange involving rewards for effective task performance
Symbolic - Leaders infallible.

CO 34
Who wrote about Theory X and Y:
Dr. Douglas McGregor in The Human Side of Enterprise.

CO 35
Theory X
Average worker is inherently lazy, dislikes work, and will avoid it whenever possible. Performance by threat of punishment. Likes close supervision, shuns responsibility and lack of ambition.

CO 36
Theory Y
The average worker does not inherently dislike work--in fact workers feel work can be as natural as play and rest.

CO 36
Theory Z
William Ouchi's response to X and Y that essentially states that involved workers are the key to increased productivity and that wach worker can perform autonomously because all workers are trust worthy.

CO 36
One problem and one weakness identified with Theory Z:
Problem: Resitance to change.
Weakness: leader is expected to alter a situation to meet a style taher than altering a style to meet the situation.

CO 37
TQM
Total Quality Management: Dr. W. Edwards Deming, connects organizational results to the happiness of workers.

CO 37
Situational Leadership
developed to overcome shortcomings found in previous theories, leadership style based on situation; includes leadership-continuum, path-goal, and results-based leadership.

CO 37
Leadership-Continuum Theory
1973 by T. Tannebaum and W.H. Schmidt used to determine leadership style from autocratic to democratic a leader should apply to a situation abandons Laissez-faire style. Very two dimensional. Contains a list of leadership actions.

CO 37
Path-Goal Theorum
1971 by Robert House based on employees' perceptions of the unit's goals and objectives. leader determines which leadership style fits: Directive, Supportive, Participative and Achievement-Oriented

CO 38
Results-Based Leadership Theory
Leadership theory should not be judged by personal traits alone but by the end results those traits have on the success of the organization.

CO 38
Principle-Centered Leadership
Stephen Covey; focuses on the use of basic values or principles to lead an organization. Proactive living instead of reactive by being controlled by another's actions.

CO 40
Leadership Levels
1990s, Jim Collins: leadership hierarchy of five levels based on leadership of successful companies.

CO 40
Leadership Level I
Highly Capable Individual: productive contribution through talent, knowledge, skills, and good work habits.

CO 40
Leadership Level II
Contributing team member: contribution of individual capabilities to the achievement of group objectives and works effectively with others in a group setting.

CO 40
Leadership Level III
Competent Manager: Person who organizes people and resources toward the effective and efficient pursuit of predetermined objectives.

CO 40
Leadership Level IV
Effective Leader: Person who catalyzes commitment to and vigorous pursuit of a clear and compelling vision, stimulating higher performance standards.

CO 40
Leadership Level V
Executive: Person who builds enduring greatness through paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional willpower. Has strong personal character and humility and is focused on a vision of a goal.

CO 40
Model vs. Theory
A model has been proven through application.

CO 41
Situational Leadership Model
Based on two dimensional and situational leadership theories: depends on matching the leader's style to the maturity of the members of the unit or subordinates.
Maturity in the Situational Leadership Model is based on what two elements?
Ability - to perform the task
Willingness - of employee to perform the task

CO 42
Four readiness levels of the Situational Leadership Model
Telling - autocratic approach
Selling - Refined autocratic involving convincing members members that a task is appropriate and justified
Participating - Relies on input from members in determining how the task should be accomplished
Delegating - Uses limits set by leader and allows members to determine how the task will be accomplished.

CO 43
Social-Change Model
regarded by some as leadership model of the future. Value-based model that places service at the core for social change. Purpose is to make for the betterment fo others through leadership.

CO [44]
Seven Critical Values that are subdivision of the Social-Change Model three areas:
Individual: Consiousness of self and others, Congruence, Committment
Group: Common Purpose, Collaboration, Controversy with Civility
Community/Society: Citizenship

CO [44]
Alpha-Leadership Model
Continuation of Transformational Theory; based on the concept that the leader involves followers in the process of accomplishing a goal within the limits of the system.
Alpha-Leadership Model is a relationship between four elements:
Leader
Followers
System
Goal

CO [45]
Alpha-Leaders are characterized how:
as persons who generate loyalty and commitment from subordinates through relationships.

CO [44]
What must an Alpha-Leader be aware of the larger system and its goals by applying one of three core skills:
Anticipating
Aligning
Acting

CO [44]
Pareto's Principle states:
commit 80% of the effort on 20% of the tasks that are important. Known as the 80/20 rule.

CO [44]
Professionally developed and administered personality profiles:
Myers-Briggs Profile
Acumen Survey

CO [45]
The most basic of leadership traits that can be summarized in five (5) concepts:
Sees opportunities that others do not
identifies challenges early
Commuicates effectively
Plans for success
Builds trust with others

CO [46]
Five (5) power types:
Reward
Coercive
Identification
Expert
Legitimate

CO [47]
Define: Reward Power
Power is based on one person's perception of another's ability to grant awards.

CO [47]
Define: Coercive Power
Power is based on subordinates' perceptions of the leader's authority to punish.

CO [48]
Define: Identification Power
Power is derived from someone's desire to identify with and emulate another.

CO [48]
Define: Expert Power
Power is based on one person's perception that another's knowledge and expertise can help in the first person's endeavors. This may mean most power but not always mos authority.

CO [48]
Define: Legitimate Power
Power is derived because of the organizational structure of the department/organization.

CO [49]
Define: Command Presence
the complex ability to identify the components of a situation, assess the need for action, determine the nature of the necessary intervention, and initiate the action.

CO [49]
Six personality traits of command presence:
Self Confidence
Trustworthiness
Consistency
Responsibility
Acceptance
Expertise

CO [50]
Definition: Supervising
Act of directing, overseeing, or controlling the activities and behavior of employees assigned to a particular supervisor.

Company Officer pg. 55
Definition: Managing
Act of controlling, monitoring, or directing a project, program, situation, or organization through the use of authority, discipline, or persuasion.

Company Officer pg.55
Definition: Leading
Act of controlling, directing, conducting, guiding, and administering through the use of personal behavioral traits or personality characteristics that motivate employees to the successful completion of an organization's goals.

Company Officer pg. 55
Company Officer priorities are based on what and asssist the officer with what?
Mission statement of the organization and assists with maintaining a positive attitude, anticipating problems and establishing unit goals and objectives.

CO [56]
Objectives should be...
...attainable, clearly stated, measurable, and within capability of unit.

CO [58]
Three ways a supervisor can involve an employee in the establishing of goals and objectives:
Simply require the employee to accomplish a specific task
Delegate Tasks
Use democratic leadership principles

CO [59]
Team Development stages:
Forming - Uncertain of roles; uncertain trust of or ability to work with other members
Storming - Conflict as members jockey for informal leadership or attempt to exert own influence over group
Norming - Group establishes own set of norms and values that each member accepts and adheres to
Performing - Supervisor works to maintain team spirit as the group moves toward accomplishing objectives
Adjourning - termination of the group task

CO [61]
Effective methods of creating job interest within a unit:
Empowering employees - delegation that allows employee to take responsibility for their actions and decisions.
Providing rewards and incentives - things earned through effort or participation
Coaching - informal process of giving motivational direction, positive reinforcement, and constructive feedback to employees in order to maintain and improve their performances and ensure successful performances.
Counseling - formal process that involves activities that assist participants in identifying and resolving personal, behavioral, or career problems that are adversely affecting performance.
Mentoring - to prepare capable individulas for advancement within the organization through the direction of a positive role model
Celebrating accomplishments - asap, signals completion of a project and shows members of the unit that their contributions are importatnt.

CO [63-66]
Define: Logic
Ability to reason and present a strong argument in favor of or against a position. It was also the ability to recognize fallacies in the arguments of others and thereby be able to refute or correct the opposing position.

CO 73
Define: Ethics
Analysis of the principles of human conduct in order to be able to determine between right and wrong.

CO 73
Four (4) general types of reasoning:
Inductive
Deductive
Causal
Analogical

CO 73
Inductive reasoning details:
A process that arrives at a general conclusion based on a foundation of specific examples or data. Depends on supporting evidence that consists of statistics, facts, and examples to arrive at the conclusion. Documentation is essential to the inductiv reasoning approach to decision-making.

CO 74
Deductive reasoning details:
process of reaching a specific conclusion based on a general statement of principle. Usually developed in the form of a syllogism (three part statement that consists of a major premise, minor premise and conclusion.) Depends on the acceptance that the major and minor premises are true.

CO 74
Causal reasoning details:
process that is based on the relationship between two or more events in such a way that it is obvious one caused the other. Structured in one of two ways: Either from a known cause to a predicted result or from a known result backward to a suspected cause.

CO 75
Define: Analogical
based on a comparison between two similar cases. Infers that what is true in the first case will also be true in the second case.

CO 76
Define: Fallacy
a false or fallicious reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade others without sufficient supporting evidence or by using irrelevant or innappropriate arguments.

CO 76-77
Some of the frequently used fallacies:
Causal - faulty connection between the cause and effect
Bandwagon - tries to make the statement that "everyone" is doing it so that makes it correct.
Straw man - a weak, easily refuted statement to take attention away from the main point.
Hasty Generalization - Makes an argument or conclusion that is based on insufficient of non-existent evidence; can also result in stereotyping.
Red Herring - When someone uses irrelevent facts to distract the listener from the main issue; the staple of many politicians
Non sequitor - concludes something that does not follow the main premise of the argument.
Slippery slope - Consists of a series of worsening consequences that are assumed will result from the initial decision or action.

CO 77
three (3) basic components of ethics:
origins of personal ethics of individuals.
causes of unethical conduct.
how people justify unethical conduct in themselves and an organization.

CO 79
Ethics three-step check:
Step 1: Is it legal?
Step 2: Is it fair to all concerned?
Step 3: How will it make me feel about myself?

CO 79
Four main reasons for lying that can also describe most forms of unethical conduct:
Basic needs
Affiliation
Self-Esteem
Self-gratification

CO 80
What is an essential part of an ethics program?
a written code of ethics.

CO 81
A situation or problem that requires a decision has the following four basic elements that must be considered in assessing the situation:
Is the decision within the authority of the company officer?
Is there suficient information available about the situation or problem to make an informed decision?
How will the decision affect the unit or organization?
Is the problem worth the effort?

CO 84
Problems are based on the following three considerations:
Whether decisions are generic or exceptional
Conditions to which decisions are subject
Choice of decision-making models used to solve the problem

CO 85
Two generally accepted decision making models:
Rational - leader gathers information and makes the decision based on the best possible alternative to the situation
Bounded rationality - allows the leader to select the decision that will satisfy the minimum requirements of the situation.

CO 85
Internal psychological barriers:
Fear
Ego or self esteem
Indecisiveness
Distrust
Antagonism
Jealousy
Unethical motives

CO 89
Describe: Abilene Paradox
developed by Jerry B. Harvey states: individual members of the group do not want to appear out of step or are afraid that their opinion is flawed, they will not voice their concern or opposition to the group's decision

CO 91
In general terms how do the three government branches interact with laws?
Legislative: creates
Executive: Implements, administers and enforces
Judicial: Interprets

CO 98
Statutory Law:
Laws that are the result of legislative actions.

CO 98
Common Law:
body of law that is based on tradition, cusstom, usage, and decisions of the judicial pourts within a particular country society or culture. (Bases laws in the U.S. on English Common Law, which was spread throughout the world by British colonizers.)


CO 99&100
Administrative Laws
Pertains to laws created by goverment agencies and used to enforce and implement statutory law.

CO 99&100
Seven (7) further classifications of laws...
Substantive: establishes principles, defines duties and obligations; defines limitations of rights within a society
Procedural: defines judiciary rules or mechanisms used to enforce substantive laws
Common: See previous cards
Statutory: See previous cards
Administrative: See previous cards
Criminal (Penal): Protects society as a whole from wrongful actions.
Civil (Non-Criminal): Defines relationships between individuals or groups and helps to resolve disputes between parties.
Criminal Law: Means by which society protects itself; its penalties are sometimes monetary, loss of freedom, or both.
Civil Law: means by which individuals seek redress, usually in the form of monetary damages, from other individuals, corporations, or the government.

CO 99
Liability: its definitions and numerous forms
legal obligation or responsibility;

Criminal
Civil
Tort
Negligence
Personal

CO 101
Define: Malfeasance
When a criminal act applies to public servants.

CO 102
One principal that applies in all criminal cases:
-an employee cannot be required by his or her employer to commit a crime. Therefore, if an employee commits a crime while on duty, the employee and not the employer is responsible.

CO 102
Define: Tort
Civil wrong or injury

CO 103
Elements that must exist for valid tort action:
Legal duty to plaintiff
Breach of duty
breach of duty must be proximate cause of accident/injury
Plaintiff must have suffered damages as a result
Define: Negligence
breach of legal duty

CO 103
Two ways in which one can be judged negligent:
Wrongful performance (misfeasance)

Omission of performance when some act should have been performed and was not. (nonfeasance)

CO 104
Some of the strongest type of evidence are...
...national standards.

CO 104
Federal laws that are of significance to most company officers are those that relate to...
...protecting health and safety, the environment, and their subordinates' employment rights.

CO 107
Major laws involving employment rights are contained in these four (4) Acts:
- Title VII Civil Rights Act of 1964
- EEOC
- ADA
- FLSA

CO 107
OSHA regulations for which company officers are responsible for are contained in...
...Title 29 (Labor) of the CFR

CO 107
Four (4) primary areas of employment discrimination:
- Disparate Treatment
- Adverse Impact
- Sexual Harassment
- Reasonable Accomodation
Two Forms of Sexual Harrassment:
Quid Pro Quo: This for that

Hostile Work Environment
Who is exempt from ADA laws?
- Federal government
- Native American tribes
- Private clubs

CO 113
Two major requirements of ADA:
Public accomodation

Employment

CO 113
Explain ANSI
American National Standards Institute, a private, nonprofit organization that administers and coordinates the voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system. Many standards of which are cross referenced between NFPA and OSHA ducuments.

CO 116
Explain ASTM International
Consensus-based standards writing and testing organization

CO 116
Explain UL
Underwriters Laboratories Inc.

An independent, not-for-profit product safety testing and certification organization

CO 116
Explain ICC
International Code Council

formed in 1994 by the merger of three building and fire-code organizations.

CO 117
Explain UFC
United Facilities Criteria

Developed by DoD for use on military installations
Three most common forms of communication are:
Informal Interpersonal
Formal Oral
Written

CO123
Five (5) general purposes for interpersonal communication:
Learning
Relating
Influencing
Playing
Helping

CO 128
Words provide what percentage of a message?
Only 7%, nonverbal accounts for the other 93%.

CO 128
Words as symbols have the following characteristics:
Arbitrary - may not mean the same to all people
Ambiguous - non-specific meanings or do not have agreed-upon definitions
Abstract - Meanings are generalizations

CO 129
To improve verbal skills, it is necessary to practice the following guidelines:
Engage in dual perspective
Take responsibility for personal feelings and thoughts
Show respect for the feelings and thoughts of the other person
Try to gain accuracy and clarity in speaking
Be aware of any special needs of the receiver
Avoid speaking or addressing a problem while angry or emotional

CO 131
Non-verbal communication transmits from __% to ___% of the message...nonverbal elements are __% while vocal tones and inflections are __%.
Non-verbal communication transmits from 55% to 93% of the message...nonverbal elements are 55% while vocal tones and inflections are 38%.

CO 131
Non-verbal clues consist of:
•Kinesics
•Paralanguage or vocalics
•Self-Presentation
Main elements of kinesics:
•Eye contact
•Facial expression
•Gestures
•Posture
•Poise
CO 131
Company officers should apply the following general concepts to improve personal nonverbal communication:
•Eye contact
...most people remember only __% of a message 24 hours after they hear it and only __% after 48 hours.
...most people remember only 50% of a message 24 hours after they hear it and only 25% after 48 hours.

CO 134
Some suggestions for improving the attending step of active listening are:
1.Be ready to listen
2.Listen to the complete message
3.Maintain eye contact
4.Remove physical barriers
5.Listen to one speaker at a time
CO 135
To evaluate a message, the listener must be able to separate facts from opinions; use the following definitions:
Facts - Verifiable data that can support the decision-making process.

Opinion - Generalization that may not be verifiable without additional data

CO 135
What completes the communication process and means an exchange of roles?
Responding

CO 136
The greatest distraction for a listener is:
the internal voice.

CO 136
What can be another major barrier to hearing what a speaker is saying?
Prejudice based on preconceived concepts of dress, voice, or attitude.

CO 138
Oral Communication is the process of...
...formal oral presentations or speeches to groups.

CO 143
Characteristics of effective speakers:
•Audience-centered
•Good development of ideas
•Good organization of ideas
•Best choice of words
•Good delivery skills
•Good research skills
•Appropriate use of humor
•Critical thinking skills
CO 145-6
Types of speeches:
PIE

Persuasive
Informative
Entertainment
persuasive speech can be the most difficult to develop and at the same time the most important. Development is based on the the theory called Monroe's Motivated Sequence Pattern developed by Alan Monroe in the 1930s:
Gain Attention
Demonstrate Need
(Main Idea 1)
Satisfaction
(Main idea 2)
Visualization
(Main Idea 3)
Call for Action (Conclusion)
Informative speech is the easiest to develop. Classified by the topics they cover:
•Ideas
•Objects
•Procedures
•People
•Events
CO 148
Informative speech principles:
1.Adapt topic to audience
2.Motivate to listen
3.Use redundancy
4.Simple-is-better
5.Organize topic in logical manner
6.Clear transitions
7.Verbal/nonverbal reinforcement of ideas
8.Even flow of information delivery
9.Build on familiar
10.Use visual aids
Steps that result in successful report presentations:
•Immediate statement of purpose
•Explain information gathering methods
•Present possible solutions
•Tell the specific benefits for and effects on audience
•Anticipate objection or questions
•Provide written copy
CO 150
Demographics include:
Age
Gender
Religion
Education
Cultural/ethnic/racial backgrounds CO 153
Five (5) basic formats a speech can be organized into:
1.Chronological
2.Topical
3.Spatial
4.Causal
5.Problem/solution
CO 158
Once a format is chosen, speech material may be further organized by onw of the following strategies:
•Primacy - most important info first
•Recency - Most important at end
•Complexity - simple to more complex
•Specificity - General to specific or specific to general
•Soft-to-hard-evidence - from opinions or inferences to facts and statistics.
CO 159
Forms of speech delivery:
•Extemporaneous - relying on notes or an outline
•Memorizing text
•Impromptu
•Reading the text
Define: Stakeholders
Members of the political body who govern the organization or influence it through legislation, nongovernmental agencies, community groups, standards-making organizations and businesses that provide services to the organization.

CO 195
Six (6) types of budget systems:
•Line Item - Lists of revenue sources and proposed expenditures
•Zero-based - Requires all expenditures to be justified at beginning of each budget cycle
•Matrix - Involves variety of independent units assigned to limited duration projects
•Program - seperate categories of programs or activities
•Performance - categories of function or activity based on projected performance
•Planning programming budgeting system (PPBS) - Links planning and budgeting through program development
CO 206
The leading cause of firefighter fatalities:
cardiac arrest, while overexertion or stress that results in heart attacks and strokes is the leading cause of firefighter injury.

CO 219
Training-related fatalities account for what percentage of fire LODD?
about 10% leading casue being cardiac arrest followed by traumatic injuries.

CO 221
In 2004, National Fallen Firefighters Foundation, in cooperation with USFA, developed strategic initiatives that will be undertaken in an effort to meet the following goals:
Reduce FF fatalities by 25% over next five years

Reduce FF fatalities by 50% over next ten years

These goals resulted in 16 objectives titled Everyone Goes Home

CO 222
What should an organization's safety policies and procedures be based upon?
NFPA safety standards.

CO 223
The company officer must approach fitness from two directions:
•Primary cause of fatalities must be addressed through education, fitness, and wellness.
•During the emergency incident, the CO must monitor subordinates to ensure that they do not become physically stressed.
CO 224
What is the most effective way to reduce/eliminate response vehicle related accidents?
Change the culture that creates an extreme sense of urgency in responders, which could cause them to drive unsafely.
An infectious disease control program or medical exposure program is regulated by what NFPA standard?
1581: Standard on Fire Department Infection Control Program

CO 227
The supervising company officer has the responsibility for what portion of an accident investigation?
initial accident investigation based on the procedure.

CO 227
Who has the ultimate authority for accident analysis?
A managing company officer (Level II), the HSO, and the safety and health committee.

CO 227
Define: Accidents
Unplanned, uncontrolled events resulting from unsafe acts and/or unsafe occupational conditions

CO 227
Accident-prone phenomenon can be explained by the term human factors:
which are an individual's attributes or personal characteristics that cause the individual to be involved in more or fewer accidents than other individuals.

CO 229
Human factors that contribute to accidents havve been classified into three broad categories:
Improper attitude - like being a jack ass!
Lack of knowledge or skill - What's an ignition switch for?
Physically unsuited - like being to short to drive an engine.

CO 228
If conditions require that accident vehicles be moved, what should be attempted first?
Photograph or sketch the location of each vehicle

CO 229
What basic information should be collected about the participants, event or incident when conducting an initial investigation?
General information
Employee characterisitics
Environmental information
Apparatus/equipment information

CO 230
Define: Scalar structure
Chain of authority or having an uninterupted series of steps.

CO 235
Define: Line and staff personnel
Two distinct groups of organizational structure

CO 235
Define: Decision-making authority
Legal ability to make and implement decisions

CO 235
Define: Unity of Command
Each subordinate must have only one supervisor

CO 235
Define: Span of control
Limits the number of subordinates that one individual can effectively supervise.

CO 236
Define: Division of Labor:
Large jobs divided into smaller tasks for individual assignment

CO 236
One deviation from the unity of command principle is functional supervision:
When personnel are assigned by their surpervisor to perform duties that fall under another supervisor, the subordinates are allowed to report to the second supervisor on matters relating to that function.

CO 241
Variables that affect span of control in any given situation:
•Ability and experience of the supervisor
•Ability and experience of subordinates
•Nature of task
•Proximity of subordinates to the supervisor and each other
•Consequences of a mistake
CO 241-2
To accomplish work within a fire and emergency services organization, the assignments are divided into groups that may be based on the following elements:
•Type of task
•Geographical area
•Time of year or season
•Available resources
•Skills specialization
CO 243
Two distinct connotations of jurisdiction:
Refers to the area served by a fire and emergency services organization;

Refers to the authority that gives the prganization the legal right to exist, provide emergency services, and take actions necessary to ensure adequate protection.

CO 245
Common public jurisdictions that provide fire and emergnecy protection:
Municipal
County
Fire district
State/provincial
Federal
Tribal

CO 246
According to U.S. Fire Administration what percentage of fire and emergency service organizations are staffed by volunteer firefighters?
70%

CO 254
One of the most common techniques for extending an organization's budget has the following two parts:
1. Fund only the minimum number and type of resources needed to deal with those emergencies that are most likely to occur within the jurisdiction
2. Rely on agreements with other jurisdictions and agencies to supplement the organization's resources for unusually large or exceptional incidents.

CO 255
Mutual aid is the result of a reciprocal agreement between two or more organizations. Responses under a mutual aid agreement are usually on an ___ ___ basis.
on-request.

CO 255
What type of staffing issue can have the greatest affect on staffing?
Sick leave that is requested immediately before a work shift.

CO 296
USFA estimates that as many as __% of the 1.1 million FF in the U.S. may be ___ ___.
10; abusing drugs

CO 298
What may be an indication of a serious problem that an employee is having trouble coping with or of circumstances beyond the employee's control?
Absenteeism

CO 298
each generally accepted conflict management style used in the business community is based on the concern for the other party and oneself. These concerns result in three types of behavior that are defined as:
Passive (nonaggressive): People hide their emotions so that others do not know how they feel.
Aggressive: open expression using threatening behaviors.
Assertive: honest expression of emotions and defense of rights without hurting others.

CO 301
Conflict management styles:
Avoiding: Nonassertive pr passive approach; people may deny that a problem exists. (lose-lose)
Accomodating: Appeasing others by passively giving into their positions. (lose-win)
Forcing: Relying on aggressive and uncooperative approach to conflict management. (win-lose)
Negotiating: Reaching a compromise solution that all parties can agree upon (win-win)
Collaborating: Sharing of information openly and honestly, which usually results in the best solution to the conflict.

CO 301
Conflict resolution steps:
Step 1: Classify/Identify
Step 2: Define/diagnose the problem
Step 3: List alternative options
Step 4: Determine the right response/appropriate conflict management style
Step 5: Convert the decision to an action
Step 6: Test the action aginst the desired outcome

CO 304
If further conflict resolution method is needed one of the most effective internal organizational processes is the...
...peer-mediation process. benefits include:
- Maintenance of relationships
- Avoid external publicity
- Avoid costly litigation
- Process controlled by orgnaization and participants
- Resolution controlled by participants

CO 304
As the word comes from the root word disciple - a learner, the main purpose of discipline is...
...to educate.

CO 304
possible reasons why personnel may break rules or not comply with procedures:
•Resentment
•Boredom
•Ignorance
•Stress

CO 305
Define: Invetigatory Interview and explain how it relates to Weingarten Rights.
One in which a supervisor questions an employee to obtain information that could be used as a basis for discipline. Weingarten Rights guarantee an employee the right to union representation during and investigatory interview.

CO 305
Progressive discipline levels:
Preventive action
Corrective action - differs from Preventive in that it is always written
Punitive action

CO 306
Yellow Dog contracts
a pledge that job applicants signed stating they would not join a union. If the pledge was broken the employee was fired. Upheld and enforced by courts till 1932.

CO 314
The New Deal 1932-1936
Created by Roosevelt, introduced a significant period of change in national labor relations, of which multiple key pieces of legislation were enacted protecting rights of workers and curtailing power of employers.

CO 314
Norris-La Guardia Act
- Yellow dog contracts unenforceable by courts.
- Almost impossible for employer to make injunction preventing work stoppage
- employers still threaten/fire workers for engaging in union activities.

CO 315
National Industrial Recovery Act
guaranteed unions had right to conduct collective bargaining. Roosevelt wanted this legislation in order to increase wages and thus maintain workers' purchasing power. Ruled unconstitutional in 1935 by Supreme Court.

CO 315
Wagner-Connery Act
- Allowed worker decision on who would represent in bargaining process
- Est. National Labor relations Board (NLRB)
- Defined unfair labor practices with NLRB support
- Prohibited management interference with employees attempts to organize
- Required mgmt. to bargain with recognized unions
- Outlawed Yellow-dog contracts.

CO 315
Downsides of Wagner-Connery Act
Did NOT impose penalties for any violations nor provide NLRB with any real power to enforce its decisions.

1937 Supreme Court decision found the act unconstitutional.

CO 315
Fair Labor Standards Act
1938 passage that guaranteed workers in private sector overtime pay beyond 40 ours in a week. Did not apply to state and local public employees until 1985.

CO 316
Taft-Hartley Act
Passed 1948 over Harry Truman veto. Amended the Wagner Act and provided specific penalties for NLRB violations.
- outlawed closed shop
- protects employees from being pressured by unions to join
- 60-day cool off period in which current contract remains in effect when initial negotiations for renewal fail to produce a new agreement.
- Regulation of Unions' internal affairs
- Strikes during a national emergency

CO 316
Landrum Griffin Act
1959, Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act.

- Union member Bill of Rights
- Disclosure report listing union assets; sent to federal government
- Minimum requirements for elections
- Taft Hartley Act amendments

CO 317
Elements of the negotiating process:Elements of the negotiating process:
- Bargaining session schedule
- Contract content
- Representation
- Preparation
- Proposal presentation
- Scope of bargaining
- Handling an impasse

CO 321
Mutual gains bargaining:
A type of bargaining that requires both parties to continually focus on the welfare of the public.
Phoenix developed what labor/management relations model?
Relations by Objective (RBO)
Time frame for a request for review during a grievance procedure:
15 days

CO 325
Define: Demographics
Results of a statistically-based study of population.

CO 331
Cultural classifications that are used to define diversity:
•Age
•Religion
•Gender
•Sexual orientation
•Ethnicity
•Race
•Politics
•Socioeconomic level
•Education

CO 333
As a benefit, diversity provides:
multiple viewpoints upon which to expand society.

CO 334
As a barrier, diversity can often result in:
a them-us mentality that separates people.

CO 334
Personal space considerations:
Intimate - 0 to 18"
Personal - 18" to 4'
Social - 4' to 10'
Public - 10' to infinity

CO 337
Define: Cultural Values
learned, long-lasting and emotionally charged moral concepts that asisst people in making decisions, forming judgements, and preparing to act.

CO 338
One of the most cost effective safety activities of any fire or emergency organization:
Public fire and life-safety education

CO 338
Three of the most effective means of providing fire and life-safety information and enhancing the organization's image through public education are...
...group presentations,
media programs,
direct assistance.

CO 338
Records management
systematic control of an organization's records that ensures quick access to information when it is needed for decision making or to fulfill legal requirements.

CO 357
Main categories of records maintained by organizations:
•Budget
•Inventory
•Maintenance
•Activity
•Personnel
CO 363
Two distinct but closely related categories that maintenance records are kept in:
Preventive
Corrective

CO 363
Most useful information that a company officer should gather during a pre-incident survey is...
...how the building is constructed.

CO 381
Two major organizations that develop model building codes:
NFPA
ICC

CO 382
NFPA 220
Standard on Types of Building Construction

CO 382
Two nationwide channels currently available for major multiagency operations:
National Law Enforcement Emergency Channel
Interagency Tactical Channel
CO 414
Typical wattages for various radio classes:
Portable: 1 to 5 watts
Mobile: 100 to 150

CO 419
Alternative Communication Methods
CB Radio
Amateur Radio
Land-based telephones
Cellular telephones
Satellite telephones
Fax Machines

CO 423
The 5 C's of communication:
Conciseness
Clarity
Confidence
Control
Capability
CO 429
ICS Forms
200 - Incident Objectives
203 - Organization assignment list
ICS 204 - Assignments list
ICS 205 - Incident radio communications plan
ICS 206 - Medical plan
ICS 215 - Operational planning worksheet
Four standard terms to report resource status:
In transit
Assigned
Available
Out-of-service
CO 444
Fire Officer I will have the opportunity to provide impromptu informal evaluations through the observation of a subordinate's daily activities. The responsibility for formal performance evaluations rests with the...
Level II Fire Officer according to NFPA 1021, Standard for Fire Officer Professional Qualifications.

CO 295
Planning for retention involves determing...
...the needs of members and then providing for those needs.

CO 294
Define: Mentor
an experienced member who can provide personal instruction and encouragement to a new employee.
Plans may be altered for these reasons:
Existing conditions may warrant the immediate alteration of an operation.
Original requirements are not being effectively met.
CO 290
Emergency incident planning involves two distinct activities that occur at two different times:
Preincident
Incident scene
CO 288
How can the five-step planning model be graphically represented?
As a circular path or flowchart

CO 287
The five-step planning model includes the following steps:
Step 1: Identify - Select a problem that requires a response
Step 2: Select - Choose the appropriate response to the problem, choose goals, outcomes, objectives required to meet them.
Step 3: Design - Determine the steps required to meet the goals, outcomes, and objectives previously selected.
Step 4: Implement - Perform the selected activity
Step 5: Evaluate - Determine the effectiveness of the activities in meeting the goals or outcomes.

CO 287
Plans may also be categorized as:
Strategic: Chart the course of the organization over an indefinite future that is divided into definite time components.
Operational/administrative: Focus on how objectives will be accomplished as opposed to strategic plans.
Contingency: Create alternative plans that can be implemented in the event of uncontrollable circumstances.
CO 286-7
The generally accepted basic classification of plans is based on the frequency with which they are used. Therefore, two broad categories can be established:
Standing: Policies, procedures and rules that are used frequently.
Single-use: Accomplish a specific objective such as the development of a program, project, or budget.
CO 286
Define: Planning
A managerial function that determines in advance what an organization, a group, or an individual should do and how it will get done.

CO 285
Training evolution control involves the following elements:
Supervising
Monitoring
Teaching
Managing
CO 280
Four methods of training:
Presentations
Discussions
Demonstrations
Practical training evolutions
CO 270
What is one of the most effective teaching models used for instructional delivery?
Four-step method of instruction:

Preparation
Presentation
Application
Evaluation

CO 265
What two levels do fire and emergency services training consist of?
Formal courses
Continuing Education
CO 263
Outside aid is similar to mutual aid except...
...payment rather than reciprocal aid is made by one jurisdiction to the other.

CO 258
Automatic Aid differs from mutual aid in that...
...it occurs whenever certian predetermined conditions occur.

CO 257
Automatic Aid differs from mutual aid in that...
...it occurs whenever certian predetermined conditions occur.

CO 257
Outside aid is similar to mutual aid except...
...payment rather than reciprocal aid is made by one jurisdiction to the other.

CO 258
What two levels do fire and emergency services training consist of?
Formal courses
Continuing Education
CO 263
What is one of the most effective teaching models used for instructional delivery?
Four-step method of instruction:

Preparation
Presentation
Application
Evaluation

CO 265
Four methods of training:
Presentations
Discussions
Demonstrations
Practical training evolutions
CO 270
Training evolution control involves the following elements:
Supervising
Monitoring
Teaching
Managing
CO 280