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42 Cards in this Set

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Diffusion
Passive movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
Osmosis
Passive movement of water molecules, across a partially permeable membrane, from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration
Enzyme
Mainly proteins that function as biological catalysts
Active site
Region of enzyme molecule where substrate molecule binds
Denaturation
A structural change in a protein that results in a loss (usually permanent) of its biological properties (due to high heat or too high/low pH)
Cell respiration
Controlled release (transfer) of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP
Gene
A heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic
Allele
One specific form of a gene, differing from other alleles by 1 or a few bases only & occupying the same gene locus as other alleles of the gene
Genome
The whole of the genetic information of an organism
Mutation
A change in chemical structure (i.e. base sequence) of DNA of a chromosome
Homologous chromosome
Chromosomes in a diploid cell which contain same sequence of genes but are derived from different parents
Genotype
Alleles of an organism
Phenotype
Characteristics/appearance (structural, biochemical etc.) of an organism
Dominant allele
Allele that has same effect on phenotype whether it is present in homozygous or heterozygous state
Recessive allele
Allele that has an effect on phenotype only when present in homozygous state
Codominant alleles
Pairs of alleles that both affect phenotype when present in heterozygous state
Locus
Particular position on homologous chromosomes of a gene
Homozygous
Having 2 identical alleles of a gene
Heterozygous
Having 2 different alleles of a gene
Carrier
An individual that has 1 copy of a recessive allele that causes a genetic disease in individuals that are homozygous for this allele
Test-cross
Testing a suspected heterozygote by crossing it with a known homozygous recessive
Sex linkage
Genes carried on only 1 of sex chromosomes & show different pattern of inheritance in crosses where male carries the gene from those where the female carries the gene
Clone
Group of genetically identical organisms or a group of cells derived from a single parent cell
Species
Group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
Habitat
Environment in which species normally lives or location of a living organism
Population
Group of organisms the same species which live in same habitat at same time
Community
Group of populations of organisms living & interacting with each other in a habitat
Ecology
Study of relationships between living organisms & between organisms & their environment
Trophic level
Level in food chain defined by method of obtaining food & in which all organisms are same number of energy transfers away from original source or energy (photosynthesis)
Evolution
Cumulative change in heritable characteristics of a population
Pathogen
Organism or virus that causes a disease
Evolution
Cumulative change in heritable characteristics of a population
Pathogen
Organism or virus that causes a disease
Resting potential
Potential difference across membrane of a neurone when it's not being stimulated (repolarised)
Action potential
Rapid change (depolarisation) in membrane potential of an excitable cell (e.g. a neurone)
Transpiration
Loss of water vapour from leaves & stems of plants
Linkage group
Genes carried on any 1 chromosome
Polygenic inheritance
Inheritance of phenotypic characters (e.g. height, eye colour) determined by collective effects of several different genes
Active immunity
Immunity due to production of antibodies by organism itself after body's defence mechanisms have been stimulated by antigens
Passive immunity
Immunity due to acquisition of antibodies from another organism in which active immunity has been stimulated, including via: placenta, colostrum, or by injection of antibodies
Excretion
Removal from the body of the waste products of metabolic pathways
Osmoregulation
Control of water balance of blood, tissue or cytoplasm of living organism