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191 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the organization of the body
cell, tissue, functional unit, organ, organ system
Name the 5 functional characteristics of all cells
1.transport/biological work, 2.chemical work,
3.Store DNA,
4.detection/response to chemical messengers,
5. Reproduction
Which cells undergo Meiosis? what is the outcome?
gamete; the chromosome number is halved
Which cells undergo Mitosis? what is the outcome?
somatic cells, a daughter cell is produced
What are the three states/types of mitotic reproduction?
fixed-post mitotic state, mitosis when injured, constantly proliferate
What are the 4 basic cell types
Epithelial cells, Muscle cells, Neurons, and Connective Tissue cells
What 2 things can epithelial cells make?
glands, continuous layers of cells that line surfaces of organs
What are the 3 functions of Epithelial cells?
1. selective permeability barrier 2. secretes: chemical messengers, muscus, water 3. protects from chemical/mechanical damage and dehydration
Name an organ that uses epithelial cells as glands and cells that line surfaces of organs
Pancreas
Reproduction of Epithelial cells?
Some continuously proliferate while some only get miotic activity when energy is present
What are the three types of muscle cells?
skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle
What is special about muscle cells?
They do mechanical work, specialized for contraction
Exocrine gland
secrete their substances, not hormones, through ducts onto the surface, affecting only the tissues in which they are produced
Exocrine gland
produces hormones that are secreted into the blood stream and travel to the place where they exert their effect
What kind of membranes do muscle cells have?
excitable
What are the 2 mechanisms of exciation of a muscle cell?
1. presence of voltage activated channels
2.High concentration of axons w/ myosin: contraction proteins
What are the 3 types of muscle cells?
skeletal, cardiac, smooth
What is the reproduction of skeletal muscles
fixed post mitotic, hypertrophy
What is the reproduction of cardiac muscles
fixed post mitotic, hypetrophy
What is the reproduction of smooth muscles?
proliferate through hypetrophy and hyperplasia
hypertrophy
to grow in size
hyperplasia
to increase in number
Where do u find smooth muscle cells? What is their function?
line hollow tubes and organs, propells contents
What special areas do cardiac muscle cells have?
special pace making areas
What is the function of cardiac muscle cells?
to pump blood
What is the function of skeletal muscle cells?
to move the skeleton
4 structural characteristics of neurons
1. dendrites 2. axon 3. nerve cell soma 4. excitable membrane for intiation and conduction of action potential/voltage regulated channels
3 functions of neurons
innerverate other neurons, local transmitter connection, synthesize/secrete neurotransmitters
What is the replication of neurons in the CNS?
fixed post mitotic
What is the replication of neurons in the peripheral?
miotic activity when injured, can get some axon regeneration/repairing part of a cell
What forms the medium between all tissue?
connective tissue cells
5 functions of connective tissue?
provide structural support, trophic & morphogenic rate for repairng tissues, development of roles (signals), defense against foreign material, medium for exchange of nutrients
how many type of connective tissues cells are there? what are the types?
General, and Skeletal
how many type of connective tissues cells are there? what are the types?
General, and Skeletal
how many type of connective tissues cells are there? what are the types?
General, and Skeletal
Where are the special skeletal connective tissue cells found?
in cartlidge and bone, embeded in the matrix which they secrete
Name 3 examples of special skeletal connective tissue cells
chondrocytes, osteoblasts, osteocytes
What are the two types of General Connective tissue
resident and transient
What are resident cells? give 4 examples
stay in the tissue; fibroblasts, adipocytes, mast cells, pericytes
What are transient cells?
Give an example
cells that originate in the bone marrow, blood cells
What is tissue?
an aggregation of cells surrounded by the extracellular matrix
Name four things found in the ECM-examples
fibroblast, smooth muscle, schwann cell
what is the most importabt feature of fibroblast?
they continously proliferated, great for repair
What do schwan cells do?
that make myelin, a fatty tissue that insulates and protects the nerves
What 2 things make up the ECM?
Insoluble protein fibrils & soluble polymers
Name and describe the 2 types of structural proteins that make of the insoluble protein fibrils
collagen- 30% of bodies proteins, found everywhere
elastin-has the ability to stretch, loses elasticity as it gets calcified w/ aging
What are soluble polymers?
long carbohydrate chains linked to proteins
Name 3 soluble polymers
glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, cell adhesive glycoproteins
What do cell adhesive glycoproteins do?
communicate between inside and outside of the cell
What do glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycans do?
they absorb a lot of water
What are the 3 functions of the ECM
they provide a mechanical framework, they provide a medium through which chemical/nutrients can freely diffuse, fluid pressure
What 2 kinds of fluid pressure does the ECM provide
interstitial free fluid pressure, and intersitiual fluid colloid osmotic pressure-exerted by the ionic mileui
What is the basement membrane?
the stuctural organization of proteins collagen and ground substance observed between connective tissue and cells
What are the layers of the basement membrane?
basla lamina & lamina Reticularis
Wha ate the 2 lamina of the basal lamina
extracellular glycoproteins and transmembrane glycoprotiens; and layer made of a meshwork of collagen IV
Where are the special skeletal connective tissue cells found?
in cartlidge and bone, embeded in the matrix which they secrete
Name 3 examples of special skeletal connective tissue cells
chondrocytes, osteoblasts, osteocytes
What are the two types of General Connective tissue
resident and transient
What are resident cells? give 4 examples
stay in the tissue; fibroblasts, adipocytes, mast cells, pericytes
What are transient cells?
Give an example
cells that originate in the bone marrow, blood cells
What is tissue?
an aggregation of cells surrounded by the extracellular matrix
Name four things found in the ECM-examples
fibroblast, smooth muscle, schwann cell
what is the most importabt feature of fibroblast?
they continously proliferated, great for repair
What do schwan cells do?
that make myelin, a fatty tissue that insulates and protects the nerves
What 2 things make up the ECM?
Insoluble protein fibrils & soluble polymers
Where are the special skeletal connective tissue cells found?
in cartlidge and bone, embeded in the matrix which they secrete
Name 3 examples of special skeletal connective tissue cells
chondrocytes, osteoblasts, osteocytes
What are the two types of General Connective tissue
resident and transient
What are resident cells? give 4 examples
stay in the tissue; fibroblasts, adipocytes, mast cells, pericytes
What are transient cells?
Give an example
cells that originate in the bone marrow, blood cells
What is tissue?
an aggregation of cells surrounded by the extracellular matrix
Name four things found in the ECM-examples
fibroblast, smooth muscle, schwann cell
what is the most importabt feature of fibroblast?
they continously proliferated, great for repair
What do schwan cells do?
that make myelin, a fatty tissue that insulates and protects the nerves
What 2 things make up the ECM?
Insoluble protein fibrils & soluble polymers
What makes up the insoluble proteins einsfibrils of the ECM?
structural proteins
Name and describe the 2 structural proteins of the insoluble protein fibrils of the ECM
o Collagens (30% of body’s proteins, found everywhere)
Elastin-Has the ability to stretch, Loose elasticity as it gets calcified w/ aging
What are the soluble polymers that make up the ECM?
• Long carbohydrate chains linked to proteins
Name and describe 3 examples of solube polymers that make up the ECM
Glycosaminoglycans & Proteoglycans: absorb a lot of water
Cell adhesive glycoproteins: communication between inside and outsie of cell
Name 3 functions of the ECM
1.Provide a mechanical framework
2. Medium through which chemical messengers/nutrients can freely diffuse
3.Fluid Pressure
• Interstitial fluid pressure: exerted by the ionic milieu
• Interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure: w/ in the ECM influences net flux of fluid
How does the ECM provide a mechanical framewurk
• Distributes stresses of movement/gravity while maintaining integrity of tissues
What are the 2 types of fluid pressure of the ECM?
1. Interstitial fluid pressure
2. presure exerted by the ionic milieu, Interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure, w/ in the ECM influences net flux of fluid
What is the basement membrane?
Structural organization of proteins, collagen and ground substance observed between connective tissue and cells
What are the 2 layers of the basement membrane
basal lamina and lamina reticularis
What are the 2 lamina of the basal lamina?
1.Layer of extracellular glycoproteins and transmembrane glycoproteins
2. Layer meade up a meshwork of collagen IV
What 2 things make up the Lamina Reticularis?
1.Large fibrils:
2.Ground substance:
What make up the large fibrils of the lamina reticularis?
Collagen types I, III, and VII
What makes up the ground substance of the lamina reticularis?
hydrate milieu made of soluble polymers
Name 3 functions of the Basement membrane
1. Anchor/hold substance that come close to the cell
2. Communication between inside and outside of cell
3.Aids in repair of tissues
What is the Glycocalyx?
 Cell coat consisting of glycopriteins & glycolipids that form an integral par of the plasma membrane
Where is the glycocalyx locates?
in the innermost outer part of the cell, the intermost layer of the basal lamina
Name 4 functional varities of the glycolcalyx
1.Cell antigens:
2. Negatively charged carbohydrate moieties impart charge barrier
3. Specialized adhesion molecules
4. Specialized membrane junctions
give 2 examples of cell antigens that are varities of the glycolcalyx
MHC antigens, blood antigens on RBC
Name 3 specialized membrane junctions that are varities of the glycolcalyx
1. Tight junctions
2. Gap junctions
3. Desposomes
Approximately what % of body weight is water?
60%
Where is the glycocalyx locates?
in the innermost outer part of the cell, the intermost layer of the basal lamina
Name 4 functional varities of the glycolcalyx
1.Cell antigens:
2. Negatively charged carbohydrate moieties impart charge barrier
3. Specialized adhesion molecules
4. Specialized membrane junctions
give 2 examples of cell antigens that are varities of the glycolcalyx
MHC antigens, blood antigens on RBC
Name 3 specialized membrane junctions that are varities of the glycolcalyx
1. Tight junctions
2. Gap junctions
3. Desposomes
Approximately what % of body weight is water?
60%
Approximately how many liters is total body water?
42 L
How many liters is intracellular fluid?
28 L
How many litters is extracellular fluid? How is it divided up?
14; plasma= 3L, interstitial fluid=11L
What does the total body sodium content determine
The total body water
What regulates water/sodium balance?
a number of hormones and messengers
Are intra and extracellular fluid more similar or different in composition?
very different in composition?
What is th goal of the organ system
To maintai the internal environment of the body
ive examples of some properties of the internal environment that are regulated
1.PH
2. Temperature
3.Electrolytes: effect neuronal signaling and muscles
4.Blood glucose: main fuel brain can use for metabolism
What are the responsibilities of cells?
To perfom that basic functions of all cells
To perom the specialized function unique to that cell
Homeostasis?
A dynamic constancy of bodily function
Steady State:
regulation of a particular variable around a set point, that still requires energy
Set point:
precise point that can be varied (hormones, body temp, ect.)
Negative Feedback
increase in substance=turn on mechanism to decrease that substance
Positive Feedback
increase in substance= turn on mechanism to increase that substance
What are the 3 components of a homeostatic reflex arc?
1.Sensory detector, 2.integrating center, 3.effectors
what do electrolytes effect?
neuronal signals and functioning
what is the main fuel the blood can use for metabolism?
blood glucose
Pathway for Homeostatic Reflex Arc
• Detect change→(afferent pathway)→send detection to integrating center→ (efferent pathway)→ determines output and sends to effectors
What are 4 biological rhythms that can affect homeostasis?
1.Circadian rhythm (24 hr light/dark cycle)
2.Puberty
3.Menopause
4.Age
What are the 4 types of Local chemical messengers?
paracrine, atuocrines,cytokines, eicosanoids
Name 3 long loop reflexes
1. endocrine hormones
2. neurotransmitters
3. neuroendocrine hormone
What is a neuroendocrine hormone?
it is released from the neuron by travel from circulation
Paracrine messenger?
secretted by one cell to affect another cell
autocrine messenger
secreted by a cell to effect itself
cytokines
both auto and paracrine
eicosanoids
modified fatty acid derived from arachidonic acid
What is the site @ which all stimuli act to form eicosanoids?
Phosphlipase A2
Describe the cyclooxygenase pathway of producing Eicosanoids
1. messenger binds to receptor, activating phospholipase A2
2. Membranse phospholipid gives off arachidonic acid
3. Enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX 1 & 2) leads to:
1.prostaglandis and thromboxanes
2. Cox remains in the cells
3. Cox can be blocked by NSAIDS like asprin or drugs that caused cardiovascular risk
What are prostaglandis and thromboxanes an important mediator for
iflamation
Describe the lipoxygenase pathway of producing Eicosanoids
1. messenger binds to receptor, activating phospholipase A2
2. Membranse phospholipid gives off arachidonic acid
3. Enzyme lipoxygenase creates leukotrienes
receptors
specific target cell proteins
specificity
ability of a receptor to bind to a limited # of structurally related messengers
saturation
the degree to which receptors are occupied to messenger. All occupied= fully saturated
affinity
strength to which a chemical messenger binds to its receptor
competition
different molecules w/ similar structures competing w/ each other to combine w/ the same receptor
antagonist
competes w/ a chemical messenger normally in the body. Binds to receptr but doesn't trigger cell's response
Down-regulation
decrease in # of target-cell receptors for a given messenger; b/c of chronic high concentration of messenger
Pathway for Homeostatic Reflex Arc
• Detect change→(afferent pathway)→send detection to integrating center→ (efferent pathway)→ determines output and sends to effectors
What are 4 biological rhythms that can affect homeostasis?
1.Circadian rhythm (24 hr light/dark cycle)
2.Puberty
3.Menopause
4.Age
What are the 4 types of Local chemical messengers?
paracrine, atuocrines,cytokines, eicosanoids
Name 3 long loop reflexes
1. endocrine hormones
2. neurotransmitters
3. neuroendocrine hormone
What is a neuroendocrine hormone?
it is released from the neuron by travel from circulation
Supersensivity
increased sensitivity of a taret cell to a messenger, often caused by upregulation
Mechanism of action of lipid-soluble messengers
1. Unbound lipid soluble messenger diffuses from plasma across the cells plasma membrane and nuclear membrane
2. Cell enter nucleus and binds to the receptor there, activating the receptors as a transcription factor
3. Hormone-receptor complex binds to a sequence on DNA near the response element gene
4. Genes rate of transcription into mRNA is 5. mRNA leaves nucleus to the ribosome to direct synthesize of a specific protein
6. The increase in the amount of this protein alters some functional response
Pathway for Homeostatic Reflex Arc
• Detect change→(afferent pathway)→send detection to integrating center→ (efferent pathway)→ determines output and sends to effectors
What are 4 biological rhythms that can affect homeostasis?
1.Circadian rhythm (24 hr light/dark cycle)
2.Puberty
3.Menopause
4.Age
What are the 4 types of Local chemical messengers?
paracrine, atuocrines,cytokines, eicosanoids
Name 3 long loop reflexes
1. endocrine hormones
2. neurotransmitters
3. neuroendocrine hormone
What is a neuroendocrine hormone?
it is released from the neuron by travel from circulation
What are the 4 types of lipid insoluble messengers?
receptor complex includes ion channel, receptors interact w/ G proteins, receptors interact w/ cytoplasmic JAK kinsases, Receptors function as enzymes
Signal transdunction mechanism involving G
1. Messenger activates receptor
2. G-protein couples
3. Various plasma membrane effector proteins (ions/channels/enzymes) activated
Signal transduction mechanism-receptor activates a JAK kinase in the cytoplasm
1. Messenger binds to receptor, which activates JAK kinase
2. JAK kinase phosphorylates target proteins, many are transcription factors, which synthesize new proteins
Signal transduction mechanism in which receptor functions as enzyme
1. Usually functions as a tyrosine kinase (phosphorylating tyrosine enzymes)
2. Binding activates enzymatic portion
3. Receptor phosporylates one of its own tyrosine groups
4. New phosphotyrosines serves a docking sites for cytoplasmic proteins, which bind to other protines, causing signaling pathways
Signal transduction mechanism in which receptor complex includes an ion channel
1. Messenger activates receptor to open channel
2. Increase in net diffusion across the plasma membrane, change in membrane potential, increase of cytosolic calcium concentration
What do all insoluble messengers have in common?
they don't have to get in the cell b/c the secondary messenger activated the phosphate protein kinase
What is biological work?
When body transfers energy from substrate to ATP
Describe the anerobic metabolism
1. Fuel to ATP that doesn’t require oxygen
2. Carbohydrates only
3. Very fast and doesn’t last long
describe the aeroic metabolism
1. metabolism of fuel substrate to ATP that requires oxygen
2. Carbohydrates, lipids
3. Efficient and long lasting
What are the 2 ways the body can transfer energy to ATP
anerobic and aerobic
What is the currecny for energy in the body?
ATP
What is cellular respiration? Formula?
reverse of photosynthesis; Glucose + 6 O2→ 6 CO2 +6 H2O + ATP
What are the 3 types of biological work and waht do they all have in common?
mechanical, chemical, and transport
Mechanical work?
ATP for movement
Transport work?
ATP is required to move things across the conecntration gradient
Chemical work: 3 synthesis using ATP
1. Glucose→(ATP) Glycogen
2. Glycerol + Fatty Acids→ (ATP) Triglycerol
3. Amino acids→ (ATP) Protein
Catabolism
taking any of the stored fues,breaking them down to release the single glucose, fatty acid, or amino acid
Anabolism
build up; to store, maintain or increase
Key hormones for anabolic
*Insulin*
growth hormone, thyroid hormone (protein synthesis)
Key hormones for catabolic
glucogyne, cortisol, epinephorine, norepinephorine
Minerals for catabolsim?
Magnesium, Manganese, Colbalt, Potassium, Copper, Zinc, Sulfur, Iron, Calcium
Minerals fo anabolism
magnesium, potassium, calcium, cholorine, manganese
3 methods of anabolism
1. Glucose→ Glycogen
2. Fatty Acids→ Fats
3. Amino Acids→ Proteins
What are the 2 fxns of carbohydrates?
1. fuel
2. attaches to proteins/membranes, modifying binding signals
Where do you find carbs?
3g Plasma glucose
100g Liver Glycogen
400g Muscle glycogen
503 g total→ last about 1 day
What does the brain depend on for fuel?
plasma glucose, not amino acids
What are 6 functions of fat
1.Protects organs/isulation
2. Fuel-biggest source of long term energy
3.Vitamins-fat soluble
Phospholipids/cholesterols:
4.Precursors for messengers(Phospholipids/cholesterols)
5. Make up membrane (Phospholipids/cholesterols)
6.Precursors for hormones
What happens when fats aren't taken in? describe the decline
Slow, progressive decline
5 functions of proteins
1.Channels, receptors, transporters
2.Structural molecules
3.Enzymes
4.Fuel
5.Make up skeletal
Describe protein levels when not taken in
progressive decline, then undergo a sharp turn towards rapid depletion (near death)
What is the Max VO2
Maximal amount of oxygen that can be consumed despite increases in exercise intensity, max the body can work
How long can a human stay @ max VO2
1-2 minutes
What is oxygen uptake
amount of oxygen body consumes while converting energy
What are the 2 major determinants of VO2 max? others
age (peak in late teens), gender;

Cardiovascular system, Heart rate (decreases w/ age),Lifestyle choices(smoking),Level of intensive training
What happens when VO2 max reaches resting oxygen consumption
you die
Lean body mass
essential fat + body water + muscle +bone
fat free mass
body mass devoid of extractable fat
Essential fat
fat found in organs that’s necessary for normal function
Can rate of devline of peak physiological activity be controlled?
yes, by activity
When do you reach peak physiological functions, need to have maximized muscle mass/total bone?
late 20’s early 30’s
Describe a reference male
Age 20-24, 68.5 inches/174 cm
Lean body mass: 61.7 kg
Essential Fat:2.1 kg
Describe a reference female
Age 20.24,64.5 in
Lean body mass: 48.2 kg
Essential fat: 6.8 kg