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174 Cards in this Set

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what do acids attack?
metals
what do bases attack?
emulsify oils (completely destroys proteins and fats)
Bases end in?
OH or CO3
Acids being with?
hydro
Acids have which unique suffix with their name?
ic
Bases taste how?
bitter
Acids taste how?
sour
Acids donate which ions in a solution?
Hydronium
Acids donate what in a chemical reaction?
protons
acids are which numnbers on the pH scale?
1-6.9
what is a very strong acid?
hydrochloric acid
What do bases do in a reaction?
accept the protons that the acids donate
what ion do bases produce?
hydroxide
bases make things feel?
slippery
bases are what numbers on the pH scale"?
7.1-14
what is a very strong base?
Sodium hydroxide NAOH
what does p in pH stand for?
concentration or how much
what does the H in pH stand for?
hydrogen
Name HCl
HydroChloric Acid
Name H2SO4? Terenary
Sulfuric Acid
Name NAOH?
Sodium Hydroxide
what is another name for sodium hydroxide or NAOH?
LYE
What is avagadro's number?
6.022*10^23
what does avagadro's number mean?
1 mole of anything contains exactly 6.022*10^23 atoms
so then...1 mole of carbon is equal to how many atoms?
6.022*10^23
Given the triangles solve:
How many molecules are there in 500 grams of substance Na2SO3?
1. find mol. weight
2. grams/mol weight
3.moles * 6.022*10^23
What is molarity?
how much solute is dissolved in the solvent
What would be the molarity of the solution if you placed 500grams of Na2SO3 into 1500ml of water?
1. FInd molec. weight=126
2. grams/molec. weight= 4mols
3. moles/liters=2.6
molarity= 2.6 molar
what is a homogenous mixture?
and what is an example?
a mixture with same composition throughout
ex: milk (no pulp)
In a homogenous mixture particles will?
not separate if left standing
Will a fliter separate a homogenous mixture?
no
another name for a homogenous mixture is a?
solution
What is a heterogenous mixture?
and what is an example?
a mixture with a different compostion throughout
ex: italian dressing
What is a suspension?
components of a mixture are in a different phase..usually one is a liquid and 1 is a solid
suspensions are always _____ because they are made up of more than one component
heterogenous
suspensions are always _____ because they are made up of more than one component
heterogenous
will suspensions separate during filteration?
yes
does the tyndall effect work with suspensions?
yes
What is a solution?
a mixture that s homogenous, made of a solute and a solvent
What is a solute?
the component that gets dissolved (the one in lesser concentration)
What is a solvent?
the component that dissolves the others (higher concentration)
what does tincture mean?
alcohol is the solvent
What are 4 common solutions? and what are they each called?
1. water and sugar- syrup
2. table salt and water-brine
3. sterilized salt and water-saline
4. carbon dioxide gas and water-seltzer
What are some examples of suspensions?
italian dressing
pepper water
dusty air
What is a colloid?
a type of homogenous mixture where the particles are too big to be dissolved but/and too small to be seen
Name 3 examples of colloids?
blood
oil
paint
whipped cream
What are the 3 types of radiation?
alpha, beta, gamma
alpha waves move very ?
slow
alpha can only cause damage to?
skin
what is alphas charge?
+2
In Alpha their mass number decreases by ___ and their atomic number decreases by ____
4,2
Beta particles are ___than alpha but ___ than gamma
faster , slower
What is beta's charge?
-1
For beta the mass number _____ while the atomic number ____
stays the same, increases by 1
beta can cause damage to?
flesh, some organ damage
Positron's charge is ?
+1
For positron the mass number ____ while the atomic number____
stays same, decreases by 1
Gamma radiaton is the ____ radiation
fastest moving
gamma's charge is
neutral
Beta radiation is trapped by?
it can go through skin but is trapped by wood and aluminum
Alpha is trapped by?
skin, paper, wood
Alpha is known as ____ or ____
heavy, fat, slow moving
Gamma rays are trapped by?
lead and concrete, they go through skin wood and aluminum
gamma rays can cause damage to?
cells, dna,-- cancer
gamma's mass number and atomic number both?
stay the same
Look at the EMR scale and answer the following questions
!
Which type of EMR has the least amount of energy?
Long radio waves
Which EMR has the longest wavelength?
long radio waves
The top of the wave is called?
crest
the bottom of the wavelength is called?
trough
the amount of wavelengths to pass a point in a space per second is called?
and the unit is?
frequency measured in Hertz
The heigh of the wave is called the?
amplitude
The difference from one crest to another is called the?
wavelength
Solve these radioactive decay problems
!
Radium 226 goes under alpha decay, what does it become?
86R/222
Bismuth 214 undergoes beta decay, what does it become?
84 Po 214
U 235 undergoes electron capture what does it become?
93 Np 235
The isotope N-14 has how many electrons, protons, and neutrons?
7 electrons, 7 neutrons, 7 protons
How do you figure out from an isotope how many electrons they have?
their atomic number
how can you tell from an isotope how many protons they have?
their atomic number
how can you tell how many neutrons an isotope has?
bottom - top

mass - atomic number
what is heat energy measured in?
calories
what is a calorie?
the amount of heat energy required to change one gram of water by 1 degree celsius
what is the unit for food energy?
Kilocalorie OR Calorie
what is the unit for basic heat?
joule
what is specific heat?
the amount heat required to change the temperature of a substance by some amount
What is heat of fusion?
the amount of heat required to change a solid to a liquid or a liquid to a solid
what is heat of vaporization?
the amount of heat required to change a liquid to a gas or a gas to a liquid
What is radiation?
the transfer of energy through open space
What is convection?
hot things rise, cool things settle
What is conduction?
transfer of energy through through a material
give 3 examples of radiation?
the sun. radiator, heater,
give 3 examples of convection
lava lamp, convection room,food in microwave,baked cake
give 3 examples of conduction
silver copper gold
What are very good conductors of heat?
Silver, Copper Gold Aluminum
What is an insulator?
things that dont transfer heat energy or any energy well
What is an example of a very good insulator?
fiber glass
Define Temperature
measure of the average kinetic energy of molecules
What is Fahrenheit?
Temperature scale used in the US
created by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
What is the boiling temperature of water on the Fahrenheit scale?
212 degrees F
What is the freezing temperature of water on the Fahrenheit scale?
32 degrees F
What is the normal temperature of the body on the Fahrenheit Scale?
98.6 degrees Fahrenheit
What is a normal room temperature on the Fahrenheit scale?
68-72 degrees F
What is Celsius
the temperature scale created by Anders Celsius most people out of US use it
What is the boiling temperature of water on the Celsius scale?
100 degrees C
What is the freezing temperature of water on the Celsius scale?
0 degrees C
What is the normal body temperature on the Celsius scale?
37 degrees C
What is the normal room temperature on the Celsius scale?
21-22 degrees C
What is the coldest possible temperature?
0 K
Which temperature scales increase and decrease by the same amount?
Kelvin and Celsius
What scale has no negative numbers?
Kelvin
What is Kelvin?
Temperature scale using no negative numbers mainly used by scientists
ON the Kelvin scale what is the boiling temperature of water?
373 K
On the Kelvin scale what is the freezing temperature of water?
273 K
On the Kelvin scale what is the normal body heat?
310 K
What is rotation?
spinning of a body on its axis
The earth rotates at exactly how fast?
1100 mph
What are the four time zones?
MT, PT, CT, EST
What does MT stand for?
Mountain Time
what does PT stand for?
Pacific Time
What does CT stand for?
Central Time
What does EST stand for?
Eastern Time
What does IDL stand for?
International Date Line
IDL is the first what?
first place on earth to reveive the new day
What is GMT?
greenwich mean time
What is revolution?
movement of a body about some point in space
ONe revolution is called?
one year
ONe rotation of earth is called?
one day
What is precession?
the movement of the axis
earth is currently tilted at?
23.5 degrees
If the sun is directly to the left of the earth what time is it on the top of the earth?
6 am
If the sun is directly to the left of the earth what time is it on the west side ( or the side closer to the sun)
12 noon
If the sun is directly to the left of the earth what time is it on the southern side (bottom) of the earth?
6pm
If the sun is directly to the left of the earth what time is it on the left side of the earth (the side that is not facing the sun at all)
12 midnight
What does it mean to orbit the earth?
you're in a constant state of freefall and you're falling around the earth because the earth has a magnetic sort of field around it that's pulling you in
What is a projectile?
any falling object
the path of a projectile is called?
trajectory
what is free fall?
constant state of fall
What is a satellite?
an object designed to be launched into orbit around a planet--or a natural body that revolves around a planet
What happens to gravity as mass increases?
gravity increases (directly proportional)
what happens to gravity as distance increases?
gravity decreases (inversely proportional)
What does the external fuel tank supply to?
to the three space shuttle main engines
what does SRB stand for?
solid rocket booster
What do the SRBs do?
provides the main thrust when taking off
What is the purpose of the OMS engine?
put spaceshuttle into orbit
Which was the first apollo mission to land on the moon?
Apollo 11
Which apollo mission blew up on the launch pad in 1967?
Apollo 1
Which apollo mission blew up on the way to the moon?
Apollo 13
How many missions successfuly made it to the moon?
6
What was the name of the rocket that was built to propel the astronauts all the way to the moon?
Saturn V 5
On December 21st the sun is directly over the?
Tropic of Capricorn
On june 21st the sun is directly over the?
Tropic of Cancer
WHen the sun is directly over the tropic of cancer and capricorn on June 21st and December 21st this is called?
solstices
On March 21st and September 21st, the sun is directly over?
the equator
On March 21st and September 21st when the sun is directly over the equator this is called?
equinoxes
The region between the tropic of cancer and capricorn is called the?
tropics
the tropics receive almost ___ amounts of direct sunlight and daylight all year
equal
This fact means that days and temperature are?
pretty much the same length and around the same temp. year round
the regions above and below the tropic of cancer and capricorn are the ?
temperates
the temperates experience?
all 4 seasons
December 21st begins which season in the northern hemisphere?
winter
December 21st beings which season in the southern hemisphere?
summer
March 21st begins which season in the northern hemisphere?
spring
March 21st begins which season in the southern hemisphere?
fall
June 21st begins which season in the northern hemisphere?
summer
June 21st begins which season in the southern hemisphere?
winter
September 21st begins which season in the northern hemisphere?
fall
September 21st begins which season in the southern hemisphere?
spring
66.5 degrees in both the north and south lattitudes are the?
artic and antarctic circles
the arctic and antarctic circles are known as the ?
arctic regions
both regions receive very little direct sunlight and as a result lack?
any sort of summer
On june 21st The north receives nearly ____ hours of direct sunlight whie the south receives _____?
24, complete darkness
A special feature that occurs on June 21st in the northern hemisphere is ?
the northern lights
On the noon sun angle sheet if both numbers are North you?
subtract