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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the articles of confederation?
2nd congress met and decided that we need a new law.
Explain citizenship.
Citizenship was limited to white male property owners, they were the only ones allowed to vote and the idea was that if you owned property you would act responsibly to creat a government that would protect rights (property rights)
What state was an acception to the laws of citizenship?
New Jersey- they were the only state to allow property owning women and property owning free black slaves but this only lasted 20 years and ended in 1807.
Explain the northwest ordiance of 1781.
This allowed wealthy individuals to help create 10 new states around the northwest area. Slaver would be prohibited in this area. In return southern slave owners recieved the fugitive slave law which said if a slave escaped the owner was allowed to go and retrive him/her.
What was the first state to free slaves?
Pennslyvania in 1780.
Explain the philidelphia convention.
55 delegates met in philidelphia in may 1787 though only 39 signed. Thomas Jefferson (in france) and John Adams (in britain) were not present for this convention.
At the philidelphia convention what plan was introduced and by whom?
James Madison introduced the Virginia Plan which was a national legislature composed of 2 houses.
What are the 2 houses that make up the Virginia Plan?
1. Lower House
--now known as House of Representatives
---has representatives in porportion to their state's population.
2. Upper House
--Now known as Senate
---elected but lower house
What did Edmund Randolph propose?
He said that national government should be established consisting of a supreme legislature, executive, and judiciary.
Who came up with the New Jersey Plan?
William Patterson, it gave congress the power to tax.
Explain the first Great Compromise.
A combination of The New Jersey Plan, and The Virginia Plan.
What was the three fifths clause?
Said all free persons and three fifths of all other persons (slaves) would count for apportionment of representatives because slavery was so big in south and had to be fair for representation and tax purposes.
Explain popular soverginty.
Said all power at all levels of government belonged to the people.
Explain checks and balances.
It was established to prevent single authority in any branch of government. The 3 brances of government woul have even distribution of power to check the other.
What are the three branches of government?
1. Executive branch
2. Legislature branch
3. Judical branch
Explain the executive branch.
Composed of:
-vice president
-cabinent memebers
What do they do?:
-Enfore laws
Explain the legislature branch.
Composed of:
-congress (senators and house of representatives)
What do they do?:
-Makes laws
Explain the judical branch.
Composed of:
-Supreme court
What do they do?:
-Interprets laws have power to overturn descisons.
Explain the consitution.
Was signed by 39/55 delegates on september 17, 1787. Out of 39 only 2 became presidents: George Washington and James Madison.
Explain Federalists v. Anti-federalists.
-Federalists supported the constitution
-Anti-federalists were their critics.
-Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams argued that the consititution would increase taxes and weaker states authority would favor the rich over the common people and abolish individual liberty.
-The main thing they argued was there was no rights that protected individual rights, only property.
Explain the Bill of Rights.
Upon Thomas Jefferson's return he agreed that there was no rights pertaining to individuals thus they established the first 10 ammendments to the constituation.
What is the first ammendment?
It gave the right to freedom of religon, freedom of speech, freedom to assemble peaceably., to ask government to make amends for a past wrong that it inflicted upon it's people.
Who was the first president?
George Washington.
What are the 3 departments congress created?
-secretary of treasury
-secretary of war
-secretary of state
What does Thanksgiving day realy celebrate?
President washington established thanksgiving day on nov. 26 1787 to give thanks for the consitution.
Explain federalists v. republicians?
Federalists wanted a strong national government and complex commerical economy, and republicans wanted the opposite.
Who started the first National Bank?
Alex Hamilton started it and it as called the bank of united stated in 1791.
Explain the Alien Act.
The alien acts set obsticles against foreigners (immigrants) to prevent them from becoming citizens. This discouraged immigrants and encouraged foreigners to leave country.
Explain the Sedition Act.
This allowed the government to prosecute these engaged in sedition (rebellion) against government.
-10 republican newspaper writers were arrested and convicted of being critical of the federalist government.
What are the federalists papers?
Written essays called the federalist papers which explained the meaning and virtue of constitution to gather support for consititution.
Who won the election of 1800?
Thomas Jefferson.
Explain the second great awakening.
-Occured 60 years after the first great awakening.
It was an effort to increase church attendance through recruiting. The first meeting was in 1801 in cane ridge, kentucky. It was to spread the message of people readmitting god and christ into their daily lives.
What is the Industrial Revolution.
The era of machines (technology).
What is the cotton gin?
in 1793 the invention the cotton gin was developed by Eli Whitney and it removed the seeds from the cotton. This was suppose to reduce the workload for the slaves who had to pick the cotton and pick the seeds out of the cotton. But slave owners just made them do more work so cotton growth spread throughout the south and need for slaves dramatically increased.
Explain the election of 1800.
-by 1800 candiates running for president got to choose their own running mates for vice president.
-this election was john adams v. thomas jefferson
-thomas jefferson won and aaron burr was to serve as his vice president
-but aaron burr did not was the presidency to go to jefferson so the house of representatives had to choose who got the president job and they chose jefferson.
Explain Marbury v. Madison 1803.
-started when john adams was still president
-president had attempted to fill the vacancies prior to the end of his term between jefferson's election and the time before adams was to leave office.
-he made several "midnight appointments" but a number of those commissons did not get delivered such as william marbury's appointment as justice of the peace
-when thomas jefferson took office, james madison was named secretary of state and refused to hand over marbury's appointment and any that were not delivered the time jefferson took office.
-the court ruled that congress had no right to expand the court's power (interpret laws) as in the judicary act of 1789
-the significance of the descion was that the court posessed power to nullify an act of congress making the judicary act void.
-this was the first time the court declared a law unconstitutional
-marbury lost his case because it was considered unconstitutional.
Explain the Louisiana Purchase.
-The u.s paid $15 million for the terroritory from france (pres. did this without consent from congress)
-one of jefferson's reasonings for having purchased the territory was to provide a place for "indians" if they would not or could not be assmilated into american society.
Who are Lewis and Clark?
Merriweather Lewis and Willaim Clark we hired but president Thomas Jefferson to explore the louisiana purchase terroritory before the purchase of it was made. They took Lewis' slave york along with them and he befriended the natives which allowed Lewis and Clark to be successful in their exploration because natives did not trust whites. A native Sacajawea who was married to a frenchman served as their interpreter.
Explain the Burr Conspiracy.
-extreme federalists plotted to secede from the union because of their fading power
-the leading federalist in new york was alex hamilton (he did not support the succession)
-the federalists then turned to hamilton's rival/vice president aaron burr to run for govenor of n.y.
-hamilton accused burr of treason because if he did do this he would help secede n.y. from the union.
-burr lost and blammed hamilton and challenged him to a duel
-afraid of being labeled a coward hamilton accepted.
-july of 1804 they dueled on the same hilltop hamilton's son died on a year earlier and hamilton lost.
-he died the next day
-everyone then turned against burr and he went into exile for about 2 years.
Explain what happened with Florida?
In 1810 americans seized the spainsih port at Baton Rouge (west florida) and annexed it to the u.s. but they only got parts of florida. But now the u.s. wanted the rest of florida which belonged to spain. Spain was Britain's ally and the u.s. decided to declar war against Britain and seized the florida terroritory.
Explain the war of 1812.
-Starts because natives went to British and Spainish for help of taking care of settlers. In 1812 u.s. invaded canada but they had to surrender, so the british attacked washington d.c. and burnt down the original white house. The british then traveled to Baltimore to bombard american ships in the harbor but they were not successful.
What is the star spangled banner?
Frances Scott Key wrote the poem the star spangled banner because he witnessed the bombardment and noticed the american flag still flying at the end of the attacks "by dawn's early light" and it was set to an old english drinking song and eventually became the national anthem.
Explain the Erie Canal.
-The first great engineering project in u.s. history, 1817-1825
-it was an artifical waterway mostly dug out by hand by a large number of irish immigrants and freed blacks.
-it was about 360 miles long
-the canal connected new york to the great lakes for the purpose of trading, political unity, and transportation.
What is the "black belt?"
Alabama and Mississippi was a massive area of dark productive soil for growing cotton.
What made a plantation?
In order to be a plantation it had to be composed of at least 20 or more slaves.
Whats an overseer?
manage plantation and oversees the slaves.
What is a head driver?
a slave who was appointed to help the overseer.
What happend with the trans-atlantic slave trade?
In 1807 congress passed a law that made it illegal to transport slaves from africa to america for enslavement. England, Spain, and united states agreed to it. Because of this planters went to extreme measures to obtain slaves. There was domestic slave trading, breeding, and smuggling slaves.
Who was John Quincy Adams?
Son of former president John Adams. He was named secretary of state. He focused on expanding the u.s. and he negotiated with the spainish minister to obtain all of florida.
Explain the Seminole War.
Secretary of State (john calhoun) sent andrew jackson and his troops to florida to cease seminole raids on american territory. However jackson invaded and seized 2 ports in florida. This impied that the u.s. might take florida by force. Spain then agreed with the Adams-Onis treaty of 1819 to give florida to u.s. and any north territory of 42 parallel. U.s. then gave us claim on texas.
Explain the missouri compromise.
Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state in 1819. But there couldn't be more slave states than free states and before missouri the porportion was 11 to 11. Maine at the same time applied for statehood as a free state. So both were admitted. Maine: free, Missouri: slave.
Explain the American Colonization Society (1817)
President Monroe offered slave owners compensation to free their slaves and send them to africa to be colonized by the u.s. Many blacks refused to leave america because they saw it as their home and most of them had not ever been to africa. The society transported about 6,000 blacks to the west coast of africa and formed the country liberia. Their capitol was named monrovia after president monroe.
Explain the Monroe Doctrine.
President monroe announced that all the american continents were not subject to future colonization from any european powers. Any foreign challenge would be considered an unfriendly act. The monroe doctrine made the u.s. the dominant power of the western hemisphere.
What is the virginia dynasty?
3 concecutive presidents from virginia
1. Thomas Jefferson - Marbury v. Madison, Ended Trans-atlantic slave trade for u.s., louisiana purchase.

2. James Madison- War of 1812

3. James Monroe- Era of Good Feeling, Monroe Doctrine, Americain Colonization Society, Liberia.
What was the era of good feeling?
DUring James Monroe's presidency there were no international threats.
Explain the election of 1824.
-4 candiates
-john q. adams won because the speaker of the house opposed jackson even though he got more electoral votes
-john q. adams ended the virginia dynasty
-andrew jackson called this a courrupt bargain.