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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why is it so important to study history?
To understand present society.
What is Ms. Mitchell's philosophy of teaching and why is it important?
To raise consciousness/awareness for students, of the world around them.
Explain Social Darwinisn.
-Charles Darwin
-Says progress comes with competiton in which the fittest survive and the weak are eliminated.
-This justified economic inequality.
-Those who succeeded deserved their succes and those who failed earned it because they were lazy.
What was the purpose of the Unions?
-Labor unoins formed in response to bad working conditions to protect the workers.
-They formed against working long hours, low wages, unsafe working conditions/workin environments and no job secruity.
What was the first labor union and what did they fight for? What caused their demise?
Knights of labors and they fought for 8 hour work days and the abolishment of child labor.
-They led a series of unsuccessful boycotts.
What was the longest lasting labor union and who in particular did they organize?
American Federation of Labor and they organized skilled workers.
What was the function of Ethnic neighborhoods?
-Created to help immigrants transition into urban life.
-Offered newspapers and theaters in their native languages and offered their ethnic food, churches, etc.
-After awhile they became overcrowded and poor neighborhoods.
Who were the tycoons of this era?
-Jason Gould
-Cornelius Vanderbuilt
-Andrew Carnegie
-JD Rockefeller
-JP Morgan
Who was Jason Gould and what did he do?
Tycoon who began in the railroad business and later seized control of western union
-Obtained wealth by buying and selling stock through manipulation
Who was cornelius Vanderbuilt and what did he do?
-Tycoon who owned the New York Central Railroad
-He owned and dominated most of the railroad
-Bought out smaller railroad compaines to creat his empire
Who was Andrew Carnegie and what did he do?
-Scottish Tycoon who owned largest steel business in the world
-He reshaped the iron and steel industry and cut the cost of making rails for railroads by more than half by using steel
Who was JP Morgan and what did he do?
-Tycoon who dominated american banking by watered stock in the railroad business (he issued more shares than assets of the company warranted)= railroad company debts
-Purchases carnegie steel and named it united states steel (largest corporation in the world)
-Steel and banking businessman
Who was JD Rockefellar and what did he do?
-Tycoon who owned Standard Oil Company
-Monoploized the oil refining business
-Railroad companies depended on him so much that they began to pay him to transport oil
-Country's first billionaire.
Why was there opposition to immigration?
-Henry Bowers - American Protective Association to cease immigration
-Immigration Restriction League was created to classify immirgrants (desirable from undesirable)
-Desireables were from Western Europe or skilled workers all others were undesirables.
What did "public space" involve?
-Created to provide refuge from the city
-Concert Halls
List urban problems of this era.
2-Diseases from inadequate disposal of waste and contaimated water
3-Air pollution caused respiratory infections
Explain the Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862.
-Government donated land to states for the establishment of colleges
-This opened the door for women colleges
-Natives were encouraged to attend schools to "civilize" them
-Black colleges and universities emerged first as industrial schools/adult education schools
-TN state university, UTC, UTK, UTM
Which president served 2 non consecutive terms?
-Grover Clevland
-Was eleted in 1884
-Was elected in 1892
Define Imperialism.
-Imperialism is when a nation extends its territory and power by dominating other nations and justification for the united states to do so was based on Charles Darwin's theory which was interpreted as:
-Strong nations to dominate weak nations was in accorance with "the fittest survive"
What did Alfred Manhan do?
-Said countries with sea power were always the great nations throughout history
-Manhan suggested that the United States should establish colonies and defense bases in the caribbean and pacfic colonies and take posession of hawaii
Define Yellow Journalism.
-Sensationalist style of reporting and writing to arouse public sentiment.
Define Muckrakers.
-Groups of journalists comitted to exposing scandals, corruption and injustice (ida tarbell is an example)
-Investigated government, labor unions, and corruptions
-They were accused by Teddy Roosevelt of "raking up muck" through their writings
Explain the Spainish American War.
-1895 Cuba was revolting againist Spain for independence.
-1898 US ship exploded and Hearst and Pulitzer pointed fingers at Spain
-President Mckinley declared war against Spain
-Spain surrendered and gave cuba its independence
-As a result spain gave US puerto rico and the philippines.
Explain the Platt Ammendment.
-Says Cuba will be barred from making treaties with other nations
-Gave the US the right to intervene to preserve independence, life, and property.
-Allowed US to establish naval bases in Cuba.
-Cubans were grateful to US for getting them independence
-US controlled 80% of Cuba's natural resources
-US had control until 1959 (castro)
Explain what happended in the Philippines.
-Philippine war 1898-1902
-filipinos resisted US control
-guerilla forces attacked US troops/us resorted to violence/ and the guerrillas were killed.
-filipinos were put in concentration camps
Explain the Progressive Era.
-Era of social reform
-3 impulses of reform (social purity movement, women's suffrage movement, prohibition/temperence movement)
-The idea that the welfare of one is dependent on the welfare of all
-Social order
Explain Professionalism.
-New professional services envolved with new middle class
-The prompted the government to set standards for medical and law schools
-Made admission requirements to protect professions to keep out the untrained and the incompetent
-Gave prestige and status certain professions
-Some professionals used admin requirements to keep out women, immigrants, and blacks.
Explain the Temperence movement.
-Anti alcohol/ anti saloon
-Women were complaining about drunk husbanbs spending their money on alcohol and said it causes violence, spousal abuse, and murder. and employers also complained about drunk workers
-Protests grew to ban alcohol
-Temperence movement results in prohibiton
-1919 congress passed 18th ammendment which prohibited the sale/manufacture of alchol
Explain Women's Suffrage.
-Women's right to vote
**-The largest reform movement in the progressive era
-Women were recognized because of their contribution in WWII
-1920 19th ammendenment gave women political rights
Explain Socialism.
-Defined as a governing system in which the state owns and operates the largest and most important parts of the economy.
-about distributing wealth, they wanted to end captialism.
-Socialist party nominated 1st pres. candiate
What were Women's jobs at this time.
-90% of professional women were teachers
-10% of professional women were nurses and librarians
What is the "gospel of wealth?"
-Was an essay written by Andrew Carenegie in 1889
-Urged millionaries to not be snobs and give any surplus of money to the poor.
Explain Laissez-Faire.
-Means "let it alone"
-idea that the government should not meddle in economic afairs except to protect private property.
-Supreme court continued to protect businesses claiming that regulating corporations deprived them all due process
-Corporationd were protected from taxation regualting laws and labor unions.
Explain Agrarian Populism.
-Prices for agrarian products dropped while consumer price rose.
-Farmers revolted against railroads and warehouses because they were being charged too much to house their goods and transport them
-They formed alliances to break the dependency on various merchants
-They established their own banks, stores, processing plants, and other facilities.