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120 Cards in this Set

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Maryland
Proprietorship
Elected Assembly
Calvert
Teotihuacan
100,000 people
Trade network to East Coast
Center of everything (Metropolis)
Earliest People
Mayans
Put together cultural similarities
Consisted of 10 or more metropolis
Had zero, the most important concept in math
Each day had four different descriptions
Codex=written history
Stelae= stone with hieroglyphics about history
Aztecs
Tenochtitlan was the capital (on top of the lake)
Militarized other cultures
Sacrifices
Social/political/ideological
Bloodletting=HUGE
Priests were the most important
Montezuma was the leader
Cortez
Local hail as Quetzalcoatl because he was “albino”
Locals wanted to see Aztecs go down as marching Malinche recruits
Befriends Montezuma
Then massacre because of different rituals, Aztecs are not people of God, starting with Montezuma
1521, entire city was burnt and treasure was gone
Richest most extensive civilization since Rome
European Model of Colonization
Transplant livestock and plants
Exploit indigenous people
Develop plantation slavery and use a labor force
Spanish Model of Colonization
Tight control through the crown
All men, civilizations weren’t permanent
Exploit and conquer indigenous
Treaty of Tordesillas
Divides world, one half Spain, other Portugal
Eucomienda system
Don’t give conquistors land
Repartimiento:
Free Indians but certain amount of labor per yea
Cycle of debt
Borrow stuff on credit
Money goes right to debtors
Cargo
-The rest goes to the church
-Like a ladder
-Incense vs. fiesta
The levelers
first democratic political movt, proposed a written
constitution – “Agreement of the People” – proposed abolishing the monarchy and the house of lords and expanding the right to vote
The diggers
wanted to give freedom an economic underpinning thru
common ownership of land…true freedom applied equally to the poor as well as the rich
Henry Care
Qualified monarchy”
Checks and balances
More liberal
Parliament and juries vs. kings
Indentured servants
5-7 year contract
Freedom dues
Not hardworking because they are looking for freedom
Land is liberty
-A way to bribe allies
-Crown is the proprietorship
-Well off have vast estates
Headright system
50 acres to any colonists to send people over
Powhatan
Wampanoags
a.Could create relationship with colonists
i.Which was good until two years later when the colonists grow and push Indians out
b.1614, John Rolfe
i.Tobacco
ii.Pocahontas
c.1622, uprising
i.Attacks Virginia population and half die
ii.John Rolfe orders them to destroy the Indian population
iii.Indians moved to reservations
Cecelius Calvert
1632, elected assembly
House of delegates
Wants religious tolerance
Makes the act concerning religion
Must be tolerant of protestants
In MD
Make up race
No protection by law because they are African
Generational
Terms of service never expire
Skin color
Accustomed intensive agricultural labor
Resistant to disease
Outside of normal circumstances and are therefore disoriented
Calvinism and Lutheranism
The simpler the better
Salvation is faith alone
Predestination
Puritanism is to purify the church and only wanted believers as part of the church
Congregationalists
Separatists are the elects
Not reprobates
Covenant Theory
Contract with God and the people
Elect and reprobate
TULIP
i.Total deprivation
1.When you were born, you are already a sinner
ii.Unconditional election
1.Doesn’t make choices
iii.Limited atonement
1.Still damned
iv.Irresistible grace
1.Can’t not be chosen
v.Perseverance of saints
1.Elects go to heaven
Puritans
Purify church
Proprietorship
Crown gives land to an individual
Malinche
Mayan
Given to Cortez
"A City Upon a Hill"
John Winthrop
Black Legend
De la Casas
Spanish were cruel
John Rolfe
introduced tobacco
married pocohontas
Haklutyt's arguement for colonization of the New World
1. trade
2. replace Spain
3. Get rid of surplus population
4. Save indians

23 reasons why Elizabeth I should support the
establishment of colonies…thru colonization he believed England, a minor power, could come to rival the wealth and standing of the other Great Nations, Spain and France…trade as the basis of the empire
Agricultural revolution
allowed mobile people to be sedintary
Moral/civic liberty
Under authority
Natural liberty
Without any conditions/law
Jamestown
1st actual colony in America
Given it's own government from James I
Joint stock company
House of Burgesses
Maryland
Colony
House of delegates
Tobacco: over 200,000 lbs per year from John Rolfe
Needed more labor
Repartimiento system
Indians were legally free and entitled to wages, but still had to perform a fixed amount of labor
the requirement they still must work for the Spanish was the essence of the system
still allowed many abuses of the Indians
Sir Walter Raleigh
charter from Elizabeth I
Discovers new world
Encouraged piracy
Sent families to roanoke island
3 years later sent a supply ship
Enclosure Movement
people flooding the England’s cities, where wages fell…buoyed by the influx of gold and silver = half the pop under the poverty line
•Solution = encourage the poor to leave for the New World
Masterless Men
Authorities saw unemployed “masteless men” as a danger to society and tried to force them to accept job
•New World = place of economic opportunity where English laboring classes could regain economic independence by acquiring land
•Any settler could become of “a lord of 200 acres of land”
•Economic freedom and the possibility of passing it on thru generation attracted the largest number of English colonists
Magna Carta
attempted to put in end to a chronic state of unrest…liberties mentioned in the MC included protection angst arbitrary imprisonment & the seizing of land
•the idea of “English Freedom” – that the king was subject to the rule of law and persons should enjoy security of person and property…habeas corpus
•As serfdom declined the number of Englishmen considered freeborn, b/c of the MC, expanded greatly
Mayflower Contract
1.Covenant for white men
2.Abide by just laws made by rich church members
3. Elect representatives
Roger Williams
a.Congregations withdraw Church of England
b.State and church separate
c.Religious tolerance means strength
d.Government would corrupt church
e.Puritans were not elect on divine mission
f.1636: banished
i.Rhode island
ii.Religious freedom
iii.Charter from crown
iv.Democratic government
v.Elect assembly two times a year
vi.Elect governor every year
vii.Town meetings
Anne Hutchinson
a.Female
b.Women’s meetings
c.Cure community
d.1634: Mass
e.Followed John Cotton (a minister)
f.Salvation is from faith
g.Accuse men of false election means God’s inner grace
h.Antinomianism means own judgment
i.Above church and state
j.1637: Trial
i.Situation means expressing opinions that are dangerous to authority banishment sealed
ii.Goes to Rhode Island
1.Long Island
2.Followers become Quakers
a.Inner light
b.Equal access to god
Pueblo revolt
i.Pope is the political functionary
ii.Horticulturalist
1.Everything if perfect
2.Obsessive
iii.Pan
1.No communication
a.Against Spanish
b.1680: 2000 Indians killed 400 colonists
i.Killed those who wouldn’t convert
ii.Victory for Indians
c.1692: Spanish reconquered
New Netherlands (first established)
i.No elected assembly
ii.Governed by appointees from Indian Co.
iii.Slaves had rights
1.Half freedom
2.Given land and work
3.Largest slave traders
iv.Religious tolerance
v.1629: six years of labor means land
merchantilism
i.Government regulates economy
1.National power
ii.Government encourages manufacturing and commerce
1.Monopolies
2.Special interests
iii.Trade controlled
1.More $ in than out
Bacon's Rebellion
a.Rich vs. poor
b.Starts in Virginia with governor William Berkeley
c.Corrupt government
d.1670’s: poor whites for England
e.Good relationship with Indians
i.Monopoly of beaver fur trade
f.Full out rebellion
g.1673: Nathaniel Bacon is a wealthy planter
i.Didn’t like Berkeley
ii.1676: Rights of an Englishman
1.Gathers armed force
2.Burn Jamestown
a.Berkeley flees
b.Bacon is governor shortly
c.23 accomplices are hanged
iii.Much more careful of social consciousness
iv.Disposition of Indians in Virginia area
v.Mass importation of African slaves
King Philip's War
a.Baltimore revokes right to vote in 1670
i.Unsuccessful revolt
b.Westo Indians in Carolina in 1680
i.Revolt is squashed
c.1675
i.Indian alliance Metacon
1.King Philip is the Indian chief
ii.1676: 12 destroyed towns
iii.English pushed towards coast
iv.1000 colonists and 3000 Indians die
v.Many Indians flee to Canada
vi.Indian image
1.Blood thirsty scavengers
vii.Leads to witch trials
Glorious Revolution
a.1658: Struggle for dominance
i.Parliament and crown
b.After war parliament supremacy overall
c.Charles II dies in 1685
i.Expanding religious tolerance
d.James II takes over
i.1687: religious tolerance law
ii.Heir another catholic to throne
William of Orange
i.Invited to throne
ii.James doesn’t know
iii.Married to James’ daughter Mary
1.Protestant
iv.Takes over
1.Bloodless coup
v.King is subject to law
vi.1689: Bill of rights
1.Rights of Englishmen
2.Parliament
3.Toleration act of 1690
a.Tolerate free worship of protestants
Halfway Convanent
Many never became church members because they were unable to make the necessary religious commitment or to testify of a conversion experience
> The Halfway covenant in 1662 allowed for the baptizing and a half way membership for grandchildren of those who emigrated during the great migration
- dealt w/ the third generation problem
- Compromise to the puritan belief religious conversion not ancestry determined salvation
> After the half way covenant church membership continued to stagnate.
- Ministers began castigating people for selfishness, pride, violations of Sabbath, and backsliding from the colony’s beliefs
+ These warnings were called jeremiads, named after the Hebrew prophet Jeremiah
> Hard work and commercial success in one’s calling had always been central puritan values.
- If seen from this perspective the commercialization of N.E was as much a fulfillment as it was a betrayal to the puritan mission
Freedom Dues
Monies or land given to indentured servants
Jesuits
a missionary religious order
Royal African Company
Had a monopoly on the slave trade
Anglicization
Elites in America becoming more english
Metis
Children of French men and indian women
Patroons
Dutch landowners of large estates
Navigation act
regulated the shipping and selling of colonial products
West Jersey Concessions
A very liberal frame for government
Asiento
Right to sell slaves to Spanish America
3 Slave systems
1.Chesapeake=tobacco
2.South Carolina and Georgia=rice
3.New England and middle colonies= no plantations
a.Virginia and Maryland are connected to England
James Ogelthorpe
i.Philanthropist
ii.Georgia in 1733
iii.Alcohol and slavery are forbidden
iv.1751: colony revoked, given to crown, and slaves are brought in
Tobacco slave society
i.Healthful, family
ii.Paternalism
Rice slave society
i.Unhealthy because wet, which leads to sickness
ii.Task system
1.Feed themselves
2.Had to finish all tasks
iii.African oriented culture
1.Gullah is the language
New England/Middle colonies slave society
i.Skilled workers
ii.Some even buy their freedom
Stono Rebellion
1739 in South Carolina
i.Seize weapons and march towards Florida and capture slaves
ii.Are killed by colonial militia, tightening of slave code
John Locke
Two Treatises of Government”
ii.Mutual agreement of equals
iii.People have right to govern selves, can boot government
1.Social contract
iv.Life, liberty, and property
v.Individual rights, consent of the governed, right of rebellion
Rights of an Englishmen
i.Rule of law to protect you
ii.Strain arbitrary exercises of power
iii.Trial by jury
iv.Everything UK is tied to
Printing press
a.Spread of literacy
b.Colonies were much more educated than in Europe
c.Own more books
d.Circulating library by Franklin
e.1704: Boston New Letter
f.Most were political commentaries by the 18th century
Real Whig ideology
a.Tension between liberty and power
b.Public sphere
i.Everyone talks politics, reinforces newspaper because the feel it’s their job
ii.Freedom of speech, free exchange of ideas, only on parliamentary floor in Europe
iii.Inalienable right
c.Considered dangerous
d.1695: no censorship of articles
Triangular trade
British goods to Africa and the colonies, colonial products to (the big four) and indigo to Europe, and slaves from Africa to the new world
Cato's letters
Thomas Gordon and John Trenchard, authors of Cato’s Letters, focus on the political role of the landowner and tendency of authority’s political power to infringe on liberty
which strongly opposed prosecutions for “libel” – “without freedom of thought there can be no such thing as wisdom, and no such thing as public liberty, without freedom of speech”
Arminianism
reason alone was capable of establishing the essentials of religion
The Great Awakening
· Like freedom of press, religion was another realm where the actual experience of liberty surpassed its legal recognition
· Religion remained central to 18th C life…sermons, theological treatises, and copies of the Bible were largest category of material produced by printers
a.Too much emphasis on money and not enough on church
b.1730’s: revival and effort to bring people back to church
California
· Spain ordered the colonization of Cali
· Father Junipero Serra became one of the most controversial people in Cali’s history…widely praised for converting thousands of Indians to Christianity
· Outposts which dotted the coast line served as religious institutions and centers of govt and labor
· Combination of diseases and resettlement of thousands of Indians around the missions devastated Indian society
Seven Years War
· 1754 – British attempt to dislodge the French from forts in western Penn…after a failed attempt to defend a fort against a stronger French and Indian force, Washington surrendered
· fighting continued for 2 years with the French controlling the war
· 1757 Prime Minister William Pitt – raised huge sums of money and poured men and naval forces into the war, his strategy was to give funds to Prussia to enable it to hold the line against France in Europe, while British struck the French colonies
· by 1759 British captured major French forts …1760 last outpost of New France, Montreal surrendered
· In Europe, Prussia was able to fend of the enemy forces of French, Russia, Spain, and Austria
· 1763 Peace of Paris – France ceded Canada to Britain, getting Gaudeloupe and Martinique in return; Spain ceded Florida to Britain getting in return, Cuba
· except for a few small islands, the entire continent east of the Mississippi was now controlled by Britain
Pontiac's Rebellion
· Treaty of Paris left Indians more dependent than ever on the British and led to a period of confusion over land, control over fur trade, and tribal relations in general
· Continued expansion of British colonies posed a threat to the Indians
· 1763 – Indians of Ohio Valley and Great Lakes launched a revolt…partly b/c of the teaching of Neolin, a Delaware religious prophet
· Neolin – believed that Indians had to reject Euro technology and free themselves from commercial ties with the whites and return to traditional ways
· Pan-Indian identity – said all Indians were a single people and only thru cooperation could they regain their lost independence
· 1763 – Indian tribes besieged Detroit and 9 other forts and killed hundreds of settlers
· Brits launched counterattack and quelled the revolt
· Inspired govt in London to issue the Proclamation of 1763, prohibiting further colonial settlement west of App. Mts…it enraged both settlers and speculators hoping to use the lands
George Whitefield
i.Passionate sermon
ii.1739: comes to USA
iii.Travels country and preaches independence
1.Split congregation
a.Old lights believe the only way to worship God is church
b.New lights are the new churches (Baptist, Methodist, etc.) and criticize colonial establishments for taxing them
Sugar Act
a.Prime Minister #2 George Grenville
b.Stop smuggling
c.Reduces tax on sugar
d.Admiralty court is one without a jury
Revenue Act
a.Consolidate colonies and money
b.Added secondary products to enumerated list: only British ships sell
Currency Act
a.Paper money is worthless
b.Legal tender: taken for debt
c.Forbids paper money
Stamp Act of 1765
a.Stamp on any printed good
b.Offends colonists because they are treated the same, unties colonies
c.First direct tax
d.Fund troops stationed in America
e.Colonial leaders fight this and don’t give in to Parliament and from liberty groups
First Great Drama
a.Resolution by Patrick Henry and sent to colonies
i.Colonists are the same as the British
ii.Consent to taxation
Stamp Act congress
a.Affirms allegiance to Great Britain, BUT want consent to taxation
b.Boycott British goods and colonies unite
c.Liberty symbols
i.Liberty tree
1.Andrew Oliver
Committee of correspondance
i.Uniting to protest Great Britain passing laws
ii.Sons of liberty are business people like Adams and Revere
iii.All classes are involved
1.Boycotting Great Britain’s goods
2.August 1765: Andrew Oliver’s dummy was hanged because he gave out taxes
3.Lt. Governor Thomas Hutchinson
a.Protestors go to house
b.More of a social class thing
c.Tear apart house
Regulator movements
South Carolina in the 1760’s
i.Under representation in own local assemblies
ii.Monopolized small farmers and used them to get what they want
Boston Massacre
a.1768: John Hancock’s Liberty is seized for trade violations
b.British troops are stationed
c.March 5, 1770
i.Bostonians around British soldiers
ii.Snowballs lead the British to shoot and kill 5
Tea Act
a.Lord North is the 3rd prime minister
b.Supposed to boost East India Co.
i.Tax exemptions
ii.Extra revenue
c.Cut out middle men, merchant, smugglers, get cheaper tea
d.Affray cost of paying salaries for government officials
e.Colonies unite immediately
i.Boycott and deny shipments
f.Boston
i.December 16,1773
ii.Snuck on ships and dump 300 chests in Boston Harbor
iii.10,000 pounds and about $4 million
Intolerable Acts
a.Shut downs port of Boston
b.Massachusetts Charter of 1691
i.Outlaw town meetings
ii.Take out local officials and put in British ones
c.Garrison of troops
i.Soldiers put in private homes
Quebec Act
a.Secure allegiance of French Canadians
b.“Ease up”
c.Expand to south to Ohio Valley
d.Edict of religious toleration (Roman Catholic Church)
American Revolution
a.Great Britain does not meet demands or respond
b.The 2nd continental colonies must reconvene in May
c.April 19 1775: Lord Dartmouth sends letter saying that weapons must be taken and rebels needed to be taken care of (in concord)
d.Colonial leaders find out
e.Confronted militia in Lexington with shovels, pitchforks, etc.
f.“Shot heard around the world”
g.49 Americans and 73 British died
h.May 1775: 2 Continental Colonies reconvene
i.Ports shut down
ii.Colonies rebel
iii.Raise an army
iv.Printed money to pay for army
v.Appoint commander
i.George Washington
i.He has to deal with the problem of putting together an army
ii.Unite north and south colonies
iii.Affected men and women
j.Fort Ticonderoga
i.Take canon around
ii.Dragged around by USA and wasn’t even fired
k.Independence -> MA and VA
i.1775: Earl of Dunmore says if slaves will fight along British, they will be freed
ii.Middle colonies are not interested in being separated
l.Joseph Galloway
i.Most internal conflicts than external
ii.Olive Branch Petition
1.Affirms Great Britain is the greatest
2.Wants a compromise
3.But no response
Thomas Paine
ii.English is dependent on you
iii.Common Sense -> 150,000 copies
iv.Dissection and criticism of British government
v.Island and continent analogy
vi.Cause of America if the cause of mankind
vii.Is basically the great awakening in political writing
Battles in American Revolution
a.Eight years: 1775-1783
b.Britain felt America were traitors
c.Didn’t have
i.Understanding militia had a cause
ii.Money
iii.Care
iv.Was thrown together
v.Overestimated their abilities
d.200,000 men bore arms
e.1 out of 20 died for cause
f.Made serious mistakes
i.Plundered homes
ii.Abused women
1.Lose Loyalists to Patriots
iii.Misjudged amount of patriots in the USA and Europeans rivals (France and Spain)
g.General William Howe (British)
i.Boston -à NY
ii.Underestimated Washington’s army
iii.Left Boston in 1776, Washington follows, pushed back, 3000 captured, 1st major defeat
h.Winter
i.USA win in Trenton and Princeton
ii.Morale in increased
iii. Reads Paine
i.Johnny Burgoyne (British)
i.Has “battles” with Howe
ii.Canada -à NY: meet with Howe and cut off New England because then it is easy to break up South
iii.But, Howe leaves NYC and attacks Philly where the congress are, but they leave
j.October 17,1777
i. Saratoga
ii.Burgoyne loses army
iii.Most important are France and Spain
k.Winters 1777-1778: Sir Henry Clinton
i.Washington and troops are suffering at Valley Forge
l.1778: send diplomats to Britain
i.Ben Franklin
ii.Treaty of Amity and Commerce
1.France recognizes USA as independent
2.Any peace forms with British, France will sit at peace treaty table
iii.British head South
1.War shifts
2.December: captures Savannah
3.1780: captures Charleston with only 5,000 men
a.Low point for USA
i.No money or morale
ii.Slaves fight with British
m.Benedict Arnold
i.Turns on USA and George Washington
ii.Pressured from wife
iii.Fort at west point
n.1781: January
i.1,500 PA soldiers march away
ii.NJ: desert also
iii.2 executed
o.Francis Marion
i.“Swamp fox”
ii.Hit and run at British
p.South Patriots have a civil war
i.South and North Carolina and Georgia
q.January 1781, Cowpens, NC
i.British win
r.Cornwallis -à British
i.Move troops from NYC to VA (peninsula and Yorktown)
ii.Marquis de Lafayette (French) calls down fleet to outside of Chesapeake, and block food and ammunition for Britain
iii.Cornwallis forced to surrender
1.FINAL DEFEAT on October 18,1781
s.September 1783 Treaty of Paris
i.France didn’t sit
ii.John Jay, John Adams, Ben Franklin
iii.Given land from Florida to Canada east of the Mississippi
iv.Won right to fish of the Atlantic
v.Won’t persecute loyalist
vi.The USA is the western hemispheres 1st nation
Thomas Hutchinson
was chief justice and Lt. Governor of MA.
- the mob broke down the door, destroyed most of the possessions, and left only the outer walls of the house standing
Loyal Nine
were a group of merchants/craftsman who took the lead in opposition of the stamp act
Molasses Act
sought to curtail trade between New England and the French Caribbean- imposed a prohibitive tax on French molasses used to make rum
Wool act, hat act, and iron act
forbade the colonies to make these items
navigation acts
sought to channel American export through British ports
Patrick Henry's 4 resolutions
colonist enjoy the same liberties, privileges, franchises and immunities
+ right to consent to taxation was a cornerstone of British freedom
+ the house of Burgesses rejected three more that were deemed to radical including the right to flat out resist unlawful taxation
Declaratory Act
est. rejecting Americans claims that only their elected representatives could tax them
+ this claimed parliament possessed the right to pass laws for the colonies and peoples of America in all cases whatever
Charles Townshend
persuaded parliament to impose new taxes on goods imported into the colonies and to create a new board of customs commissioners to collect them and stop smuggling
+ intended to use the revenues to pay the salaries of American governors and judges thus freeing them from dependence on colonial authorities
Revenue Act
an act that placed secondary goods on the enumerated list which means only British ships are allowed to sell them
Lord Dunmore
stated he wanted all weapons confiscated and all rebels taken care of. colonists greeted the militia was weapons and the shot hears around the world was fired....revolution started
Stamp act
stamps are required on all printed good used to pay salaries of officials, first direct tax
treaty of amity and commerce
france recognizes america as independent and will sit at the table if any peave plan is formed...trade?
Articles of confederation
Drafted by congress in 1777 and ratified 4 years later. In effect 1781 - 1788
- Articles sought to balance the need for national coordination of the War w/ widespread fear that centralized political power posed a danger to liberty
- Was a treaty for mutual defense, a “league of friendship” among the states
- Under the articles the 13 states retained their individual sovereignty, freedom, and independence
national government
consisted of a one house congress, in which each state cast a single vote
+ unicameral
+ No president to enforce and no judiciary to interpret them
+ Major decisions required approval of nine states rather than a simple majority
by the articles was were those essential to the struggle for independence
- declaring war, foreign affairs, and making treaties with other governments
- It could coin money but lacked the power to levy taxes or regulate commerce
+ had no real financial resources it finances came from contributions mad by individual states
- Various amendment were suggested to strengthen the national government during the year when the articles were in effect but all were rejected
Congress
took the position that by aiding the British the Indians had forfeited rights to their land
+ made little distinction between Indians that sided with Br and those that aided the patriots
ordinance of 1784
drafted by Jefferson, and defined terms by which the west would be marketed and settled
- The region would be divided into districts initially governed by congress and eventually admitted to the union as member states
- By a single vote congress rejected a clause that would have prohibited slavery in the west
second ordinance of 1785
regulated land sales in the region north of the Ohio River
- This land came to be known as the Old Northwest
- Land would be surveyed by the gov and sold in sections of a square mile (640 acres) at 1$ per acre. In each township land would be set aside to provide funds for public education
+ Public free education was a first but necessary to have a gov in which all could participate
- The ordinance promised to control and concentrate settlement and raise money for congress
- Settlers violated the rules by pressing west ward before the surveys had been completed
Shay's rebellion
1787 a crowd of debt ridden farmers led by Daniel Shays closed the courts in western Mass. to prevent the seizure of land for failure to pay debt and taxes
Shays was a veteran of the revolution and angered that after risking his life the gov threatened to take his land
- Mass resisted pressure to enact any policy suggested providing debt relief for farmers
+ Printing paper money, ect.
- participants in rebellion believed they were acting in the spirit of the revolution
+ employed liberty trees and poles as symbols for their cause
- The protester received no sympathy from Governor James Bowdoin who sent the army to quell the disturbance
+ Army was led by Benjamin Lincoln
+ Rebels were dispersed in Jan 1787 and over 1000 were arrested
> The uprising was the culmination of a series of events of the 1780s that persuaded an influential group of Americans that the national gov must be strengthened
- this was the only way it could developed uniform economic policies and protect property owners from infringements on their rights by local majorities
- Shays rebellion produced fears that the revolution’s democratic impulse had gotten out of hand
Nationalists of the 1780’s
Alexander Hamilton
who had come to N.A. as a youth, was another man who spearheaded the movement for a stronger national gov
- Hamilton was a vigorous supported of a gov that would enable the new nation to become a powerful commercial and diplomatic presence in world affairs
> Men like Madison and Hamilton were nation builders
James Madison
thought deeply and creatively about the nature of political freedom
- He was among the men who spearheaded the movement for a stronger national gov
Nationalists
included army officers, members of congress accustomed to working with individuals from different states, and diplomats
+ Nationalists were the party in opposition to the Articles of confederation who sought to create a stronger national government
- Influential economic interests also desired a stronger national government
- There was a common belief in the need for a stronger national gov
Philidelphia Convention
assembled in May 1787 they decided to scrap the Articles of confederation entirely and draft a new constitution
Constituitional convention
> The new constitution would create a legislature, an executive, and a national judiciary
- congress would have the power to raise money without relying on the states.
- state could not infringe on the rights of property and the gov would rep the people
- Hamilton’s proposal for life terms for congress and president received virtually no support
+ Hamilton also believed the rich and well born should rule the masses
- most delegates hoped to find a middle ground between the despotism of monarchy and aristocracy and popular self government
- the key to stable, effective republican government was finding a way to balance the competing claims of liberty and power
> differences quickly emerged over the proper balance between the federal and state governments and between the interests of large and small states
Virginia plan
it proposed the creation of a two house legislature (bicameral gov) with a states population determining its representation in each
- smaller states feared larger states would come to dominate the new government
New Jersey plan
+ called for a single house congress (unicameral gov) in which each state cast one vote
+ same one called for in Articles of Confederation
> A compromise was reached between the two plans, a two house Congress ( bicameral) with a senate which each state had two members, and a House of Representatives apportioned according to population
- senators would be chosen by state legislatures for six year terms
- representatives were to be elected every two years directly by the people
house of representatives
represented an expansion of democracy
- popular election of at least on part of the regime was essential to every free government
- congress left states to set all voting requirements
> Overall the new structure of gov was not democratic
- the delegates sought to shield the national gov from the popular enthusiasm, and to ensure the right men held office
- the people would be sovereign but would choose among the elite to staff the new gov
> Made the house of representatives quite small, on the assumption only qualified individuals would win elections
- members of the Supreme Court were appointed by the pres for life terms
- the President was chosen by members of an electoral college or the House of Representatives
- number of electors was determined by adding the number of senators and reps
+ a states electors were determined either by popular vote or legislature
> Actual system of election seemed a recipe for confusion.
- each elector was to cast votes for two candidates for president, with the second place finisher Vice Pres.
- If no candidate gained the majority the pres is chosen by the House of Reps, with each state casting 1 vote
- this system of indirect election was devised because they did not trust ordinary voters to choose the pres
federalism
refers to the relationship between the national government and the states
fugitive slave cause
Required states to return runaway slaves
established the fact that one was still a slave even if they were in a state where slavery was abolished
3/5 cause
provided 3/5 of the slave population would be counted in determining state rep and state electoral votes
allowed the white south to exercise far greater power in national affairs
+ The clause enhanced the number of southern rep in the House, and thus in the Electoral College
> The initial failure to include a bill of rights resulted in part from the presence of slavery
- usually these bills begin by declaring that all men are by nature born free, this would conflict with a society where a large portion of the pop consists of men born slaved
The bill of rights
§ Madison believed that the balances of the Constitution would protect liberty and a Bill of Rights would be pointless
§ He Believed amendments restraining federal power would have no affect on the danger of liberty posed by unchecked majorities
§ Although a federalists Madison gave in and presented congress with a series of amendments…The Bill of Rights…the 1st amendment prohibited congress from legislating with regard to religion and infringing on freedom of speech, press, and right of assembly
§ The Bill offered a definition of the “unalienable rights” talked about in the Declaration by Jefferson
§ Other amendments reflected the changes in America brought upon by the revolution…especially the recognition of religious freedom
§ Unlike the Declaration of Independence which invokes the blessing of divine providence, the Constitution is a purely secular document
§ Originally the Bill of Rights aroused little attention and was all about ignored for decades until the 20th century…yet it still affected the language of liberty
§ Reinforced the idea that concentrated national power posed the greatest threat to freedom
§ The rights of freedom of speech and the press were vital building blocks for a democratic republic sphere