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48 Cards in this Set

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John F. Kennedy
he is considered an icon of American liberalism. Major events during his presidency included the failed Bay of Pigs invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, early events of the Vietnam War, and the American Civil Rights Movement.
James Meredith
-(1962) A black air force veteran, applied to the all-white University of Mississippi, only to be rejected on racial grounds
Jackie Robinson
1947) Broke the color line and began playing major league baseball with the Brooklyn Dodgers.
“Bull” Connor
-(1963) Commissioner of Birmingham, Alabama, used high-pressure fire hoses, electric cattle prods, and trained police dogs to force the protesters back.
Lee Harvey Oswald
Accused of assassinating John F. Kennedy
Freedom Summer
(1964) An effort sponsored by the SNCC and other civil rights groups, which sent black and white students to Mississippi to work for black rights. At the end of the summer, 3 workers were murdered, 80 were beaten, 1,000 arrest had been made, and 37 churches had been bombed.
Stokely Carmichael
black activist and leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Black Panther Party. He later became a Black separatist and Pan-Africanist. He was arrested during a march; on his release he gave his "Black Power" speech, using that phrase to urge Black pride and independence. His speech brought Black Power into the spotlight and it became a rallying cry for young African Americans across the country. SNCC embraced this new vision and gradually became more radical under his leadership.
John Mitchell
headed the Committee to Re-elect the President (CREEP). They spent money on dirty tricks aimed @ disrupting the opposition’s campaign. He approved the illegal plan to tap the phones of the Democratic National Committee. This was known as Watergate.
Richard Nixon
noted for his diplomatic foreign policy, especially détente with the Soviet Union and China, and ending the Vietnam War. He is also noted for his middle-of-the-road domestic policy that combined conservative rhetoric and, in many cases, liberal action, as in his environmental policy. He is the first and only U.S. President to have ever resigned from office. His resignation came in the face of impeachment related to the Watergate scandal.
Watergate
Scandal that involved CREEP tapping the phones of the Democratic National Committee. After a shoddy cover-up, an investigation was launched. In the end, many people in Nixon’s administration were either fired or they resigned. Nixon was impeached and then pardoned by Gerald Ford, also appointed by Nixon.
Jimmy Carter
most remembered for the Iran hostage crisis, for the peace treaty he brokered between the states of Israel and Egypt with the Camp David Accord, for the SALT II treaty brokered with the Soviet Union, for the Panama Canal treaty which turned the canal over to Panama, and for an energy crisis.
Phyllis Schlafly
headed a nationwide campaign to block ratification of the ERA (Equal Rights Amendment). She felt that the amendment would lead to the establishment of coed bathrooms, the elimination of alimony, and the legalization of homosexual marriage.
AIM
- (1968) American Indian Movement, founded by George Mitchell and Dennis Banks, Chippewa living in Minneapolis.
Three Mile Island
a nuclear accident @ a plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, as the result of human error and a mechanical problem that led to the disintegration of a nuclear core.
Ronald Regan
his presidency is regarded as a turning point for the United States Republican Party and the American conservative movement. His presidency was marked by new economic policies, dubbed ------omics and a confrontational foreign policy towards the Soviet Union and Socialist movements around the world.
Geraldine Ferraro
the first major-party female vice presidential nominee.
Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1970
banned cigarette advertising on television and radio and requiring a stronger health warning on cigarette packages.
Student Non-Violent Coordination Committee
organized to advance and coordinate the “sit-in” movement, a protest technique that became prominent in1960, when four young black men sat at a segregated “whites only” lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, and refused to leave when ordered to do so.
Martin Luther King, Jr
a Baptist minister and political activist who was the most famous leader of the American civil rights movement. He won the Nobel Peace Prize and Presidential Medal of Freedom for his promotion of non-violence and racial equality, before being assassinated in 1968.
George Wallace
Governor of Alabama, believed in segregation. Also a third-party candidate, he used social and racial tensions in his campaign to appeal to northern working-class voters as well as southern whites.
Lyndon Johnson
Vice president to JFK, he succeeded him after his assassination. Johnson was best known for a set of domestic programs titled the “Great Society”. A main focus of the Great Society social reforms an "end to poverty and racial injustice". One component that transformed American politics was the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Another Johnson success was the establishment of the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Great Society
A set of domestic programs enacted by LBJ. A main focus of these social reforms was an "end to poverty and racial injustice". One component that transformed American politics was the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Another Johnson success was the establishment of the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Malcolm X
one of the most prominent black nationalists leaders born in the United States. As a militant leader, advocated black pride, economic self-reliance, and identity politics. He ultimately rose to become a world renowned Pan-Africanist and human rights activist.
Black Power
a slogan which describes the aspiration of many people of varying degrees of African descent for national self-determination. The term describes a conscious choice for blacks to nurture and promote their own models of value, rather than look for other races to validate them. It calls for Blacks to identify their historical struggle and work to help themselves.
Archibald Cox
During the times of the Watergate scandal, he was appointed by Nixon as a special prosecutor in the Department of Justice. When he tried to gain access to the tapes, Nixon fired him.
Arab oil embargo
On October 16th, 1973, as part of the political strategy that included the Yom Kippur War, OPEC cut production of oil, and placed an embargo on shipments of crude oil to the West, with the United States and the Netherlands specifically targeted. Also imposed was a boycott of Israel, and price increases
CREEP
They spent money on dirty tricks aimed @ disrupting the opposition’s campaign. Also, see John Mitchell.
NOW ((National Organization for Women))
an American feminist group founded on June 30, 1966 in Washington, D.C., by women attending the Third National Conference of the Commission on the Status of Women. Among the 28 founders was Betty Friedan.
NOW
Gloria Steinem
(1972) one of the founders of a magazine titled “Ms”.
Wounded Knee
the American Indian Movement (AIM) occupied the Pine Ridge Reservation near Wounded Knee in protest against the federal government on February 27, 1973. A 71-day standoff between federal authorities and the AIM ensued. The militants surrendered on May 8.
Ralph Nader
-(1970s) led the consumer movement. Wrote book called “Unsafe @ Any Speed: The Designed-in Dangers of the American Automobile”, which argued that many cars were coffins on wheels. His efforts paved the way for the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, which set minimum safety standards for vehicles on public highways, provided for inspection to ensure compliance, and created a National Motor Vehicle Safety Advisory Council.
Jesse Jackson
demonstrated that an African American could attract a substantial level of support as he ran for president in 1984 and 1988.
James Watt
head of the Dept. of the Interior under Regan’s administration. He opened forest lands, wilderness areas, and coastal waters to economic development, w/ no concern for preserving the natural environment.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Started by Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1957, an organization of southern black clergy.
SCLC
Congress of Racial Equality
An interracial group established in 1942, promoted change through peaceful confrontation.
CORE
Edmund Pettus Bridge
a bridge in Selma, Alabama. It is infamous as the site of the conflict of Bloody Sunday (March 7, 1965), where armed officers attacked peaceful civil rights demonstrators.
K rations
an individual daily combat food ration which was introduced by the United States Army during World War II. It was intended to last for a day and provided three courses: breakfast, supper and dinner.
Barry Goldwater
John’s challenger in the 1964 elections. A republican, Goldwater frightened members of his own party by proclaiming that “extremeism in the defense of liberty is no vice”, and by speaking out against social security. His extremist views even drove some republicans to vote for the Democratic Party.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed racial discrimination in all public accommodations and authorized the Justice Department to act with greater authority in school and voting matters. In addition, an equal-opportunity provision prohibited discriminatory hiring on grounds of race, gender, religion, or national origin in firms with more than 25 employees.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
considered one of the most important laws of the decade. It singled out the South for its restrictive practices and authorized the U.S. attorney general to appoint federal examiners to register voters where local officials were obstruction the registration of blacks.
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC
is made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela. The principal aim of the Organization, according to its Statute, is the coordination and unification of the petroleum policies of its member countries and the determination of the best means for safeguarding their interests, individually and collectively.
(OPEC)
Gerald Ford
the only individual to serve as President without ever having been elected to either the presidency or vice presidency. When Nixon resigned on noon of August 9, 1974, he assumed the presidency.
Title IX
Part of the Education Amendments of 1972 barred gender bias in federally assisted educational activities and programs, and made easier the admission of women to colleges and intercollegiate athletics by requiring schools to fund sports teams for women.
Cesar Chavez
founder of the United Farm Workers, showed the way by organizing the migrant farm workers of the West, among the most exploited and ignored groups of laboring people in the country. He concentrated on migrant Mexican field hands, who worked long hours for meager pay.
Love Canal
(1978) the public became alarmed about the lethal effects of toxic chemicals dumped in this neighborhood of Niagara Falls, New York.
Endangered Species act of 1973
prohibited the federal government from supporting any projects that might jeopardize species threatened with extinction.
Sandra Day O’ Connor
Regan named her as the first woman Supreme Court justice
Service Economy
refers to one or both of two recent economic developments. One is the increased importance of the service sector in industrialized economies. Services now account for a higher percentage of GDP than just 20 years ago. If you look at the current list of Fortune 500 companies, more of them are service companies and fewer are manufacturers than in previous decades.