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66 Cards in this Set

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sensation
feeling that results from physical stimulation. Invloves 3 steps: reception, sensory transduction, and neural pathways
reception
takes place when receptors for a particular sense detect a stimulus.
receptive field
part of the world that triggers a particular neuron
sensory transduction
process in which physical sensation is changed into electrical messages that the brain can understand.
neural pathways
electrical info travels down these to the brain, where the info is understood.
vision
we see objects because of the light that they reflect
light
composed of photons and waves
photons
measured by brightness
waves
measured by wavelengths
hue
aka color. Dominant wavelength of light
brightness
physical intensity
cornea
clear protective coating on the outside of the eye
lens
located behind the cornea. contains ciliary muscles
ciliary muscles
contained in the lens, allowing it to bend (accomodate) in order to focus an image of the outside world onto the retina
retina
located on the back of the eye, receives light images from the lens. Composed of about 132 million photoreceptor cells and of other cell layers that process information.
receptor cells for vision
(rods and cones) on the retina. Responsible for sensory transduction (converting the image into an electrical message the brain can understand). This happens through the chemical alteration of photopigments
rods
particularly sensitive to dim light and night vision and they are concentrated along the edges of the retina. Explains why you can see dimly lit objects better with side vision than with forward vision.
cones
concentrated in the center of the retina (in the area called the fovea). Cones are particularly sensitive to color and daylight vision. See better than rods because there are fewer cones per ganglion cells than rods per ganglion cells.
fovea
area of the retina with the greates visual acuity.
horizontal cells
light passes through here after passing through the receptors. Some info processing probably takes place along the way
bipolar cells
light passes through here after passing through the receptors and then the horizontal cells. Some info processing probably takes place along the way
amacrine cells
light passes through here after passing through the receptors and then the horizontal cells and then the bipolar cells. Some info processing probably occurs along the way
ganglion cells
make up the optic nerves. Where light goes ends up after it has passed through the receptors, horizontal cells, and bipolar cells.
cerebral cortex
eyes connected to it by a visual pathway, which consists of one optic nerve connecting each eye to the brain
optic chiasm
where half of the fibers from the opric nerve of each eye cross over and join the optic nerve from the other eye. Thus, the pathways are 50% crossed, ensuring that input from each eye will come together for a full picture in the brain. Because of this layout, a stimulus in the left visual field is processed in the right side of the brain and vice versa.
striate cortex
visual input travels through here after the optic chiasm
visual association areas
part of the cortex where visual input travels after the striate cortex
opponent-color theory
aka opponent process theory. Theory of color vision suggesting that 2 types of color-sensitive cells exist: cones that respong to blue-yellow colors and cones that respond to red-green. When one color of the pair on a cone is stimulated, the other is inhibited. This is why we don't see reddish-green colors. If an object seems red to us, then our ability to see green in that object is inhibited. This is also why if you look at something red for a long time, and then focus on a white image, you'll see a green afterimage.
Ewald Hering
proposed Opponent-color theory of color vision
tri-color theory
theory of color vision that suggests that there are 3 types of receptors in the retina: cones that respond to red, blue, and green.
Thomas Young and Herman bon Helmholtz
proposed the tri-color theory of color vision. von Helholtz is famous also for a theory of "color blindness" as well as his "Place-Resonance theory" of sound perception
lateral inhibition
allows the eye to see contrast and prevents repetitive information from being sent to the brain. Once one receptor cell is stimulated the other nearby are inhibited.
David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel
discovered that cells in the visual cortex are so complex and specialized that they respond only to certain types of stimuli. e.g. some respond to vertical lines only while others respond only to right angles, etc.
hearing
humans are sensitive to loudness and pitch in sound
amplitude
physical intensity of a sound wave, largely determining loudness
loudness
largely determined by amplitude of sound wave
frequency
pace of vibrations or sound waves per second for a particular sound, determines pitch. Low frequency is perceived as low pitch or low tone and vice versa
pitch
frequency of vibrations of a wave
hertz (Hz)
measure of frequency. Humans hear freqs around 1000Hz
tombre
complexity of sound wave
outer ear
consists of the parts you call called the pinna and the auditory canal. vibrations from sound move down this canal to the middle ear
middle ear
begins with the tympanic membrane, which is stretched across the auditory canal. Also contains the ossicles. Sound vibrations bump against the tympanic membrane, causing the ossicles to vibrate
tympanic membrane
eardrum
ossicles
three small bones in the middle ear behind the tympanic membrane, the malleus, the incus and the stapes.
inner ear
responsible for hearing and balance. Contains the oval window, which is tapped upon by the stapes. The vibrations activate the fluid-filled, snail-shell-like cochlea, which contain the ear parts for hearing (the basilar membrane and the organ of corti). The movement of the cochlear fluid activates the hair-like receptors on the basiliar membrane and the organ of corti.
oval window
begins the inner ear and is tapped upon by the stapes
cochlea
fliud-filled, snail-shell-like structure that contains the basiliar membrane and the organ of corti. The movement of fluid activates the hair-cell receptors on the basiliar membrane and this movement is called the traveling wave.
vestibular sacs
structures in the inner ear. Sensitive to tilt and provide our sense of balance.
receptor cells in the inner ear
activate nerve cells that change the info into an electrical message the brain can process. The auditory system that leads to the auditory cortex consists of the olivary nucleus, the inferior colliculus and the medial geniculate body
Place-Resonance theory
theory of sound perception in which diff parts of the basilar membrane respond to diff frequencies
sound localization
achieved in diff ways. Degree to which one of our ears heara a sound prior to and more intensely than the other can give us info about the origin of the sound. Specifically, high-freq sounds are localized by intensity diffs, whereas low-freq sounds are localized by phase diffs.
olfaction
sense of smell. extremely primitive sense. Strongly connected to memory and the perception of taste
olfactory bulb
Lies at the base of the brain. Hair receptors in nostrils send their messages here.
gustation
humans distinguish 4 basic tastes: sweet, sour, bitter, and salt. most taste receptors lie on the tongue. Saliva mixes with food, so that the flavor can flow easily into the tongue's taste receptors.
taste buds
aka papillae. aka taste receptors
cutaneous
aka tactual. aka skin senses. include touch, pain, cold, and warmth
free nerve endings
in the skin. Detect pain and temperature changes
Meissner's corpuscles
receptors in the skin that detect touch or contact
two-point threshold for touch
largely determined by the density and layout of nerves in the skin
physiological zero
temperature that is sensed as neither warm not cold
Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall
developed Gate Control Theory of Pain
Gate Control Theory of Pain
looks at pain as a process rather than just a simple sensation governed in one center in the brain. Pain perception is related to the interaction of large and small nerve fibers that run to and from the spine. Pain may or may not be perceived depending on diff factors, including cognition.
endorphins
neuromodulators that kick in to reduce or eliminate the perception of pain
orienting reflex
tendency to turn toward an object that has touched you
kinesthetic sense
aka proprioception. Info from receptors in joints and muscles that tells us about the positioning of our own body
osmoreceptors
deal with thirst