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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
define molecular genetics
directly looks at nucleotide sequences
define transmission genetics
pattern of inheritance of traits
define population genetics
looks at gene frequences and variation in entire populations
what are three ways to study genetics
molecular
transmission
population
define chromosome
unit of DNA that contains many genes that can be replicated
what is genetic material
carries traits
mechanism of expressing traits
may be replicated
variable
what did hershey and chase do
used bacteriophage and E coli to find out if genetic material was protein or dna
does DNA have phosphorus or sulfur
DNA has of phosphorus
what are three experiments that demonstrated that DNA is the unit of heredity
Griffith
Avery macleod mccarty
hershey chase
what did griffith do
mouse with s strain found transforming factor to make it virulent
what did avery macleod and mccarty do
added enzymes that degrade protein, RNA, and DNA to find that DNA must carry information because transformation did not occur from s to R cells unless DNA was present
what are the three forms of DNA
A B Z
B is most common
how bond between AT? CG?
2 and 3
describe disassociation kinetics and reassociation kinetics
in dis you start with DS and denature to observe melting points to know if more GC rich or AT rich

in re you start with ssDNA and all it to reassociate. Slowly means more unique DNA
what are the three models for DNA replication
conservative
dispersive
semiconservative
describe conservative and why it's not true
two old stay in place. Not true because generation one had N15/N14 hybrid band
describe dispersive and why not true
dispersive is random fragmenting. not true because there are two distinctive bands N14/N14 and N15/N14
describe the meselson stahl experiment
used N15 heavy isotope and N14 to show that semiconservative must occur
define replicon
the entire chromosome
what is required for DNA replication
template
enzymes
dNTPs
ATPs
what pol catalyzes DNA synthesis and requires a DNA template and all four dNTPS
DNA pol
what is a primer
a short piece of RNA or DNA
what are the four basic steps of DNA replication in ecoli
initiation
unwinding
elongation
termination
describe initiation in prok
9mer indicates OR
DnaA binds to 9mer
binding causes dNA to bend causing a new region to open and helix breaks
DNAb and C are helicases
what does topoisomerase does
topoisomerase or DNA gyrase cuts covalent to allow spinning to releive temp
DNA pol needs a paired ___
3'OH
why is the primer made of RNA
becasue easy to find and fix later
describe elongation in bacti
DNA pol III 3 to 5 pol activity and 3 to 5 exonuclease activity
what is processive
stays on DNA and replicates it very quickly
what does DNA pol III look like
10 subunits
2 beta clamps
alpha theto epsilon core
gamma loads DNA
what removes primers from okazaki fragments
DNA pol I chews it up
is mutation of DNA pol I lethal? pol III?
POL III would be lethal because it is mainly responsible for pol activity
describe the eukaryotic DNA pols
alpha- primas eand DNA pol activity
dela/epsilon- both involved in elongation
gamma- replicates mitochondrial DNA
ended at beginning of chap
12
what is packaging of DNA like in prok
protein scaffolds and twists
are proteins that react with DNA positive or negative
positive because then they interact with neg DNA
which amino a are positively charged
lysine
arg
his
what is a histone
euk DNA wraps around the nucleosome twice
what is a solenoid
6 histones interact with each other to form the straw
when would you see compact chromosomes
metaphase
what are two types of chromatin remodeling
DNA methylation
histone remodeling
what is DNA methylation
non active DNA 5methyl cytosine methylation occurs on cpg islands.

decreasing transcription
what happens to transcription when histones are phophorylated, methylated, or acetylated
transcription is activated
what is HAT
histone acetylase neutralizes the positive charge of the histone and allows tail to hang off. This causes activation of txn
what are some examples of repititive DNA
satellite DNA
SINES
LINES
retroposons
telomeres
centromeres
what are two tyeps of chromatin
H and E
what is heterochromatin
transcriptionally inactive
what is E chromatin
less compact, transcriptionally active int he interior
compare and contrast E and H chromatin
E is center of the nucleus, loose, txn active, acetylated histtones, hypomethylated DNA, replicated earlly S phase, less compact, not visible in interphase
Pol III is actually a complex containing.
a. catalytic subunits
b. proofreading subunits
c. sliding clamp subunits
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
in nucleic acids, the free hydroxyl group is attached to the ___ carbon of the sugar
a. 5
c. 3
c. 3
you isolate a new organism from mars. In this organism, DNA replicaiton occurs continuously on both strands, which of the following would NOT be required?
a. primase
b. helicase
c. a leading strand
d. ligase
e. okazaki fragments
e. okazaki
considering the structure of the dsDNA what kinds of bonds hold one complementary strand to the other
hydrogen bonds
describe a nucleosome
five main histones H2A H2B H3 H4 H1. Histones are positively charged with aa such as arg and lysine that attract DNA. These form tetramers and eventually octomers. H1 is linker. DNA is further compacted into solenoids. the nucleosome is the octamer of histones adn the DNA and the linker making a unit of 200 bp.
name the proteins in E coli DNA replication
DNA a b c
DNA gyrase
ss bp
RNA primase
DNA pol III
DNA pol I
DNA ligase
describe telomerase
responsib le ofr adding the telomere. Made up of a protein and RNA template that uses reverse transcriptase to elongate the 3' end of the lagging strand.
in meselson stahl how would you prove it is dispersive
one band after first --> no conservative
one band after second --> no semi

therefore must be dispersive