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92 Cards in this Set

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anorexia
a loss or total lack of appetite
borborygmi
the audible rumbling sounds of gas moving through the intestinal tract. This is plural; singular: borborygmus or borborygmos.
chills
shivering or a shaking also called rigor
rigor
shivering or shaking also called chills
constipation
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces. This term could be classified as either a symptom or a disease. Patients can subjectively relate that they are experiencing the discomfort of constipation, and it can also be the diagnosis.
obstipation
constipation that continues for a prolonged period of time
dysphagia
This is a subjective feeling of difficulty swallowing. It occurs when there is impaired progression of the food bolus from the pharynx to the stomach.
fever
An elevation in temperature above normal. This is also called PYREXIA. I
pyrexia
another word for fever
febrile
A patient who has a fever
afebrile
A patient who does not have a fever
gas
Excessive gas in the colon is often expressed by bloating, belching, and flatulence
heartburn
a retrosternal sensation of burning felt in waves and arising upward toward the neck.
hematemesis
vomiting of blood
hematochezia
the passage of bloody stools
melena
The passage of dark and pitchy stools stained with blood pigment and black vomit. It is important to note that although the combining form is spelled with an "A" the term melena or melenic stools is spelled with an "E".
nausea
an unpleasant sensation in the epigastric and abdominal area, which often results in vomiting
odynophagia
pain during swallowing
pallor
paleness or the absence of skin color
regurgitation
flow in the opposite direction as is normal
tenesmus
Straining, especially ineffetive and painful straining during a bowel movement or urination.
vomiting
also called emesis. The forcible expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth.
weakness
lacking physical strength
weight loss
losing pounds on the scale without actually trying
achalasia
this is an impairment of normal esophageal peristalsis. (Peristalsis: the movement of muscles in the alimentary canal to propel the food bolus.) It also affects the ability of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax. The most common symptoms are dysphagia, regurgitation, nocturnal cough, and chest pain.
anorexia nervosa
a mental condition characterized by an individual's refusal to eat enough to maintain a minimal body weight, ususally fueled by an intense feal of becoming obese.
appendicitis
inflammation of the vermiform appendix
vermiform
The vermiform appendix specifically identifies the diverticulum of the cecum. However, health care professionals commonly drop the term vermiform when referring to this particular appendix, except for pathologists.
atresia
the absence or closure of a normal body orifice or tubular organ
bezoar
tightly packed, partially digested agglomerations of hair or vegetable matter
cheiloschisis
This is another term for cleft lip or harelip. It is a congenital abnormality.
cholecystitis
Inflammation of the gallbladder. There are different types of cholecystitis, the most common being chronic and acute. An acute infection generally indicates severe infection and often necessitates a cholecystectomy--which is removal of the gallbladder. This is an extremely common procedure.
cholelithiasis
The presence of formation of gallstones.
cirrhosis
A group of liver diseases in which the normal hepatic structure is destroyed over time by nodules. It is the third leading cause of death in the U.S. for people 45 to 65 years of age. In the U.S. it is caused by chronic alcohol abuse.
colitis
Inflammation of the colon.
dehydration
The condition which results from an excessive loss of body water. This can occur on a hot day without a drinking fountain nearby, but also occurs when there is vomiting, diarrhea, diarrhea, diabetes, mental disorder, coma, or when a paitent is taking diuretic medications. It can be life threatening.
dental caries
Tooth decay. Although this is a component of the dental specialty, because it directly affects the teeth which are responsible for masticating food, it is significant to the function of the GI system.
diverticulum
Plural: diverticula An abnormal bulge, pocket or pouch formed from a hollow or tubular structure.
diverticulitis
Inflammation of a diverticulum
diverticulosis
The presence of diverticula with the absence ofdiverticulitis, especially in the colon.
Zenker's diverticulum
The most common place that a diverticulum occurs is just below the pharynx.
dysentery
Any of a variety of disorders maked by inflammation of the intestines, especially the colon. The symptoms include pain in the abdomen, tenesmus, and frequent stools containing blood and mucus.
amebic dysentery
The most common type of dysentery, due to an ulceration of the bowel caused by amebiasis.
dyspepsia
General term which means impairment to the power or function of digestion. It often refers to discomfort in the epigastric region following a meal, or what many people call "indigestion".
enteritis
Inflammation of the intestine, especially the small intestine.
enterocolitis
The inflammation of both the intestine and the colon.
cholera
A form of enteritis which is spread by food and water contaminated with feces. It is much more common in third world countries.
esophagitis
Inflammation of the esophagus.
fecalith
An intestinal concretion (the process of becoming harder or more solid) formed around a center of fecal matter.
fistula
An abnormal passage or communication between two organs or from an internal organ to the surface of the body. There are several different types. It can occur because of trauma, infection, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis, or other causes.
gastritis
Inflammation of the stomach. Frequently associated with alcohol abuse.
gastroenteritis
Acute inflammation of the lining of the stomach and the intestines. This is often a result of a bacteria, and symptoms include anorexia, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weakness.
gastroesophageal reflux disease
The reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus. It is often represented by the acronym GERD. This is often caused by an incompetent lower esophageal sphincter. The major symptom is heartburn, although it can lead to several more severe disorders.
halitosis
Offensive breath. This can be real as the result of ingested substances, gingival disease, fermentation of food in the mouth, or associated with systemic diseases such as diabetic acidosis. It can also be imagined and the result of anxiety disorders, obsessive disorders, paranoia, or hypochondria.
hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver. It can be due to viral, bacterial, and parasitic factors. They are generally classified by letters, i.e. hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C. Some strains are transmitted through feces/oral contact, some through the blood (IV drug use) and some are sexually transmitted. Hepatitis can be chronic and active in which case it is often fatal. Some forms are highly contagious.
hernia
The protrusion of a loop or knuckle of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening. There are several classification of hernias. The most common are abdominal hernia, hiatal hernia, sliding hiatal hernia, paraesophageal hiatus hernia, inguinal hernia, unbilical hernia.
abdominal hernia
The protrusion of some internal body structure through the abdominal wall.
hiatal hernia
The protrusion of the stomach above the diaphragm.
sliding hiatal hernia
The protrusion of the stomach above the diaphragm.
paraesophageal hiatus hernia
The protrusion of the stomach above the diaphragm.
inguinal hernia
A hernia into the inguinal canal. There are both direct and indirect inguinal hernias.
umbilical hernia
Protrusion of part of the intestine through the unbilicus.
Hirschsprung disease
Congenital meagcolon, or a dilatation and hypertrophy of the colon due to the sustained contraction of the muscles of the rectosigmoid.
hypertrophy
The enlargement of an organ due to an increse in the size of its cells.
ileus
The temporary cessation of intestinal peristalsis, which often leads to obstruction. A common type is adynamic ileus.
adynamic ileus
A suspension of peristalsis because of paralysis or atony (lack of normal muscle tone or strength.) This can be the result of drugs, toxemia, trauma, or surgery.
inflammatory bowel disease
This can be used to describe a variety of bowel disorders whihc are inflammatory in nature, whose etiology cannot be directly determined. There are two common types of inflammatory which you should know: Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis.
Crohn disease
It is not known what causes Crohn disease, it can affect any part of the GI tract from the mouth to the anus, but is especially common in the ileocecal area. It frequently leads to obstruction and fistula and abscess formation.
ulcerative colitis
A chronic, nonspecific, inflammatory, and ulcerative disease which arises in the colonic mucosa, and usually involves the rectum. Its etiology is also unknown and it is most often manifested by bloody diarrhea.
intussception
This occurs when a segment of bowel advances and protrudes into the segment distal to it.
irritable bowel syndrome
Intermittent or constant adominal distress and bowel dysfunction which has no demonstrable cause.
jaundice
A syndrome characterized by the bile pigment in the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae with a resulting yellow appearance. There are many types of jaundice and most of these indicate a problem with the liver.
leukoplakia
A white patch on a mucous membrane that will not rub off. This occurs in the oral mucosa and is considered t obe a premalignant (precancerous) lesion, common in smokers.
malabsorption
Impaired intestinal absorption of nutrients. If the body is not absorbing nutrients properly, it can quickly result in a insufficiency of necessary nutrients. The combination of weight loss, diarrhea, and anemia indicate malabsorption.
mumps
An acute, highly contagious viral disease which causes painful enlargement of the salivary glands. Primarily infects children under age 15.
obstruction
The state or condition of being clogged or blocked. In gastroenterology, it usually regers to a complete arrest or serious impairment to the passage of intestinal contents. You can probably imagine the physical manifestations of obstructions. They are generally caused by adhesions, hernias, tumors, foreign bodies, inflammatory bowel disease, fecal impaction, and volvulus.
pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas
parasites
A plant or animal which lives upon or within another living organism at whose expense it obtains an advantage. It is not uncommon for a parasite to be present in foods that are consumed, and they are also communicable via person-to-person contact.
Giardia
An intestinal protozoa which has a large, sucking disc which adheres to the microvilli of the intestinal walls.
giardiasis
The infection which occurs with the presence of teh Giardia parasite. There are many different kinds of parasites. However, except for Giardia, they are much more common in Africa and rarely impact Western medicine.
peptic ulcer disease
Inflammation and ulceration in the duodenum and stomach caused by gastric acid juice. Peptic ulcer occurs only if the stomach secretes acid.
Barrett esophagus
Barrett esophagus is a chronic peptic ulcer of the esophagus, and is commonly seen in medical reports.
peritonitis
Inflammation of the peritoneum. Symptoms include abdominal pain and tenderness, constipation, vomiting, and moderate fever. Peritonitis sometimes follows abdominal surgery such as an appendectomy.
pharyngitis
Inflammation of the pharynx. This is the most common etiology of a sore throat.
polyp
This refers to any mass of tissue that arises from the bowel wall and protrudes into the lumen. They may be either sessile or pedunculated. They vary condiderably in size and histologic `(microscopic tissue structure) characteristics.
sessile
Sessile means attached by a base.
pedunculated
Pedunculated means attached by a stem-like structure or stalk.
prolapse
The falling down or sinking of a part. This pathology can affect the GI system through anal prolapse and rectal prolapse (where skin of the anus and mucosa of the rectum protrude through the anus).
pruritus ani
Pruritus ani means itching. Pruritus ani is intense, chronic itching in the anal region.
Schatzki ring
A 2-4 mm mucosal structure, probably congenital in nature, which causes a ring-like narrowing of the lower esophagus.
ulcers
A defect or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue. There are many kinds of ulcers, many causes for ulcers, and many treatments for ulcers, such as peptic ulcer disease, stress ulcers, ulcerative colitis, etc.
volvulus
Intestinal obstruction which is due to a knotting or twisting of the bowel.