• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/88

Click to flip

88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. Which of the following foods is not a good source of potassium?
A. Squash
B. 2% milk
C. Whole grain pasta
D. Canola oil
D. Canola Oil
2. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is characterized by excessive production of ADH. A consequence of this disorder could be
A. hyponatremia.
B. hypernatremia.
C. dehydration.
D. kidney stones.
A. hyponatremia
3. The two most significant extracellular ions are
A. sodium and chloride.
B. phosphate and potassium.
C. potassium and sodium.
D. chloride and potassium.
A. sodium and chloride
4. Sodium intake above 2000 milligrams per day may increase urinary excretion of
A. iron.
B. potassium.
C. calcium.
D. vitamin D.
C. Calcium
5. In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the
A. kidneys.
B. intestine.
C. lungs.
D. liver.
A. Kidneys
D. Homemade oven-baked chicken, buttered rice, and steamed fresh green beans
D. Homemade oven-baked chicken, buttered rice, and steamed fresh green beans
7. All foods in their unprocessed form tend to be low in sodium except
A. milk and dairy products.
B. whole grains.
C. legumes.
D. fruits.
A. milk and dairy products.
8. Obesity
A. reduces risk for hypertension.
B. is a minor contributor to risk for hypertension.
C. is the number one lifestyle risk factor for hypertension.
D. is not related to hypertension.
C. is the number one lifestyle risk factor for hypertension.
9. According to the RDA, the mineral that you need in the largest amount is
A. iron.
B. iodine.
C. calcium.
D. copper.
C. Calcium
C. Help regulate chemical reactions in the body
D. Directly supply energy
C. Help regulate chemical reactions in the body
1. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is characterized by excessive production of ADH. A consequence of this disorder could be
A. hyponatremia.
B. hypernatremia.
C. dehydration.
D. kidney stones.
A. hyponatremia.
2. Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?
A. Water-soluble ones are stored, whereas fat-soluble ones are excreted readily
B. Water-soluble are less likely to be toxic
C. Fat-soluble vitamins have much less potential for toxicity
D. Water-soluble vitamins are best absorbed in the presence of dietary fat
B. Water-soluble are less likely to be toxic
3. Adult men need how much total water intake per day?
A. 2.0 liters
B. 2.7 liters
C. 3.0 liters
D. 3.7 liters
D. 3.7 liters
4. All of the following vitamins are stored in the liver except
A. vitamin B-6.
B. vitamin B-12.
C. vitamin D.
D. thiamin.
D. Thiamin
5. Which of the following electrolytes is especially important for proper heart rhythm?
A. Sodium
B. Potassium
C. Chloride
D. Phosphate
B. potassium
A. Vegetarians
B. Alcoholics
C. People with eating disorders
D. People who exercise heavily
A. vegetarians
C. They provide 4 kilocalories per gram
D. They help maintain water balance
C. They provide 4 kilocalories per gram
A. sodium.
B. potassium.
C. chloride.
D. phosphate.
A. sodium
9. Bottled water is regulated by
A. USDA.
B. EPA.
C. FDA.
D. All of these choices are correct.
C. fda
10. Joe is a wrestler and during his workouts he loses 2 pounds. How much water would he have to drink to replenish this water weight loss?
A. 2 cups
B. 3 cups
C. 4 cups
D. 5 cups
c. 4 cups
1. For which of the following people are sports drinks with electrolytes most appropriate?
A. A student who needs to stay up late to study for an exam
B. An athlete who competes in a marathon
C. An athlete who competes in the 46-meter dash
D. An elderly adult
B. An athlete who competes in a marathon
3. Phosphorus deficiency is a likely result of
A. vitamin D deficiency.
B. inadequate dietary phosphorus intake.
C. excessive consumption of phytic acid and oxalic acid.
D. compromised kidney function.
A. vitamin D deficiency.
4. Hypertension is defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure at or above ___________ mm Hg.
A. 100/50
B. 120/80
C. 140/90
D. 180/100
C. 140/90
5. Aldosterone signals the kidneys to conserve
A. sodium.
B. potassium.
C. chloride.
D. phosphate.
A. sodium.
7. An adult whose blood pressure is 135/88 should do all of the following except
A. increase his intake of fruits and vegetables.
B. include 2 - 3 servings per day of whole milk.
C. limit meat intake to 2 servings per day.
D. choose whole grain products rather than refined grain products.
B. include 2 - 3 servings per day of whole milk.
8. A marathon runner who consumes excessive water during a race is at risk for
A. hyperkalemia.
B. hyponatremia.
C. dehydration.
D. heat stroke.
b. hyponatremia
10. The vitamin content of foods is diminished by all of the following except
A. exposure to light.
B. cooking in water.
C. freezing.
D. alkalinity.
C. freezing
If the intracellular concentration of ions is greater than the extracellular concentration of ions, fluid will
A. move into the cell.
B. move out of the cell.
C. not change.
D. evaporate.
A. move into the cell
Phosphorus functions include all of the following except
A. energy storage.
B. component of DNA and RNA.
C. bone structure.
D. regulation of heart rhythm.
d. regulation of heart rhythm
One or two drinks per day
A. is a reasonable alcohol intake for an adult with hypertension.
B. may reduce the risk for ischemic stroke.
C. is a reasonable alcohol intake for adults of legal drinking age.
D. all of the above.
d. all of the above
Which of the following electrolytes is especially important for proper heart rhythm?
A. Sodium
B. Potassium
C. Chloride
D. Phosphate
b. potassium
The two most significant extracellular ions are
A. sodium and chloride.
B. phosphate and potassium.
C. potassium and sodium.
D. chloride and potassium.
a. sodium and chloride
Depletion of chloride is mostly likely to occur with excessive
A. dieting.
B. vomiting.
C. diarrhea.
D. sweating.
b. vomiting
The DASH diet for reduction of hypertension
A. excludes added sugars.
B. is a vegetarian meal plan.
C. recommends 2 - 3 servings per day of low-fat dairy products.
D. reinforces the "five-a-day" message.
c. recommends 2-3 servings per day of low-fat dairy products
Water regulates body temperature through heat loss via
A. conduction.
B. radiation.
C. respiration.
D. evaporation.
d. evaporation
Intracellular water volume depends primarily on the concentration of
A. sodium and chloride.
B. phosphate and potassium.
C. potassium and sodium.
D. chloride and potassium.
B. phosphate and potassium.
1. A potential consequence of consuming individual mineral supplements is
A. lead consumption.
B. mineral toxicity.
C. impaired absorption of other minerals.
D. All of these choices are correct.
D. All of these choices are correct.
2. All the following are true statements regarding fat malabsorption except
A. results in decreased absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
B. increases the risk of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency.
C. increases the risk of developing pellagra or beriberi.
D. increases the risk of developing rickets or osteomalacia.
B. increases the risk of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency.
3. Which of the following does not describe fat-soluble vitamins?
A. They are stored in the body
B. Excesses are excreted in the urine
C. They are transported via the bloodstream
D. They tend to exist in several biologically active forms
B. Excesses are excreted in the urine
5. Potassium performs all the following functions except
A. it maintains the ability to see at night.
B. it maintains fluid balance.
C. it assists nerve transmission.
D. it maintains normal heart function.
A. it maintains the ability to see at night.
Minerals are classified in which way?
A. Major minerals are needed in amounts of 500 mg per day or greater
B. Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less
C. Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 10 mg per day or less
D. Major minerals are needed in amounts of 200 mg per day or greater
B. Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less
Symptoms of dehydration include all of the following except
A. heat intolerance.
B. low blood pressure.
C. slowed heart rate.
D. dry skin.
C. slowed heart rate.
Which of the following foods has the highest water content?
A. Butter
B. Whole grain bread
C. Tomato
D. Sirloin steak
C. Tomato
10. Adult women need how much total water intake per day?
A. 1.5 liters
B. 2 liters
C. 2.7 liters
D. 3 liters
C. 2.7 liters
Of the following foods, which one is lowest in sodium?
a. Pepperoni pizza
b. Macaroni salad
c. Milk
d. grape juice
d. grape juice
4.) The ratio of sodium to chloride in table salt is
a. 30:70
b. 40:60
c. 50:50
d. 60:40
b. 40:60
6.) About 95% of Americans exceed the upper level for
a. water
b. sodium
c. potassium
d. calcium
b. sodium
Metabolic water refers to
a. rehydration beverages that contain electrolytes
b. water that is formed as a byproduct of the breakdown of macronutrients for energy
c. water that is conserved by the kidneys
d. fluids that are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract
b. water that is formed as a byproduct of the breakdown of macronutrients for energy
8.) Which of the following is most likely to result in vitamin toxicity if consumed daily over a long period of time?
a. vitamin A supplements
b. B vitamin complex
c. fortified breakfast cereals
d. spinach, kale, and other greens
a. vitamin A supplements
If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be a.
a doughnut made with enriched white flour
b. apple juice
c. a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisin Bran
d. a banana
c. a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisin Bran
10.) Which of the following populations is especially sodium-sensitive?
a. Caucasians
b. Asian Americans
c. African Americans
d. Native Americans
c. African Americans
2.) For a healthy adult, the largest percentage of daily water output is attributed to
a. feces
b. urine
c. perspiration
d. lung perspiration
b. urine
3.) Phosphorus deficiency is a likely result of
a. vitamin D deficiency
b. inadequate dietary phosphorus intake
c. excessive consumption of phytic acid and oxalic acid
d. compromised kidney function
a. vitamin D deficiency
Which of the following is true about the intake of vitamins?
a. supplemental vitamins are better than those from food
b. occasional lapses in vitamin intake should cause no harm
c. it is hard to get all the vitamins we need from food
d. vitamins consumed in excess are excreted
b. occasional lapses in vitamin intake should cause no harm
Which of the following foods is not a good source of potassium?
a. squash
b. 2% milk
c. whole grain pasta
d. canola oil
d. canola oil
1. The B vitamins generally function as
A. antioxidants.
B. coenzymes.
C. emulsifiers.
D. reducing agents.
B. coenzymes.
3. A potential consequence of consuming individual mineral supplements is
A. lead consumption.
B. mineral toxicity.
C. impaired absorption of other minerals.
D. All of these choices are correct.
D. All of these choices are correct.
Mucus, saliva, and synovial (joint) fluid exemplify water's role as a
A. lubricant.
B. solvent.
C. medium for transport.
D. All of these choices are correct.
A. lubricant.
Hypertension is defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure at or above ___________ mm Hg.
A. 100/50
B. 120/80
C. 140/90
D. 180/100
C. 140/90
All the following are true statements regarding fat malabsorption except
A. results in decreased absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
B. increases the risk of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency.
C. increases the risk of developing pellagra or beriberi.
D. increases the risk of developing rickets or osteomalacia.
C. increases the risk of developing pellagra or beriberi.
Consumption of a diet high in salt by a healthy individual will
A. cause damage to the kidneys.
B. result in edema.
C. increase fecal excretion of sodium.
D. increase urinary excretion of sodium.
D. increase urinary excretion of sodium.
Which of the following is not true about the regulation of fluid in the body?
A. Thirst is a reliable indicator of how much water should be consumed to replenish body fluids
B. Antidiuretic hormone is released to force the kidney to conserve water
C. There is a limit to how concentrated the kidney can make the urine
D. Even though the kidney can effectively conserve water, insensible water losses must be replenished
A. Thirst is a reliable indicator of how much water should be consumed to replenish body fluids
Which of the following is not commonly present in food as a food additive?
A. Sodium
B. Chloride
C. Potassium
D. Phosphorus
C. Potassium
2.The ratio of sodium to chloride in table salt is
A. 30:70
B. 40:60.
C. 50:50.
D. 60:40.
b. 40:60
According to the RDA, the mineral that you need in the largest amount is
A. iron.
B. iodine.
C. calcium.
D. copper.
c. calcium
An adult whose blood pressure is 135/88 should do all of the following except
A. increase his intake of fruits and vegetables.
B. include 2 - 3 servings per day of whole milk.
C. limit meat intake to 2 servings per day.
D. choose whole grain products rather than refined grain products.
B. include 2 - 3 servings per day of whole milk.
Which of the following populations is not at risk for low blood potassium?
A. Vegetarians
B. Alcoholics
C. People with eating disorders
D. People who exercise heavily
a. vegetarians
Of the following, the best source of potassium is
A. fresh spinach.
B. milk.
C. white bread.
D. canned tuna.
a. fresh spinach
Bottled water is often lower in _______________ than municipal tap water.
A. calcium
B. iron
C. fluoride
D. All of these choices are correct.
c. fluoride
Inadequate hydration may increase risk for
A. hyponatremia.
B. kidney stones.
C. hypertension.
D. hypokalemia.
B. kidney stones.
Which of the following is most likely to result in vitamin toxicity if consumed daily over a long period of time?
A. Vitamin A supplements
B. B vitamin complex
C. Fortified breakfast cereals
D. Spinach, kale, and other greens
A. Vitamin A supplements
Which of the following is true about the absorption, transport, and storage of fat-soluble vitamins?
A. They enter the bloodstream directly after absorption
B. Fat in the digestive contents is not important for their absorption
C. They are not stored to any great extent
D. After absorption, they are transported in the bloodstream to body cells and or stored in the liver and fatty tissue
D. After absorption, they are transported in the bloodstream to body cells and or stored in the liver and fatty tissue
Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?
A. Water-soluble ones are stored, whereas fat-soluble ones are excreted readily
B. Water-soluble are less likely to be toxic
C. Fat-soluble vitamins have much less potential for toxicity
D. Water-soluble vitamins are best absorbed in the presence of dietary fat
B. Water-soluble are less likely to be toxic
Megadoses are defined as vitamin intakes ________ times the estimated human needs to prevent a deficiency.
A. 1 to 3
B. 3 to 5
C. 2 to 10
D. 50
C. 2 to 10
If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be
A. a doughnut made with enriched white flour.
B. apple juice.
C. a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisin Bran.
D. a banana.
C. a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisin Bran.
Joe is a wrestler and during his workouts he loses 2 pounds. How much water would he have to drink to replenish this water weight loss?
A. 2 cups B. 3 cups C. 4 cups D. 5 cups
c. 4 cups
All the following are true of B vitamins except
A. are water soluble. B. serve as coenzymes. C. can be lost during food processing and preparation. D. are stored in adipose tissue.
d. are stored in adipose tissue
Phosphorus functions include all of the following except
A. energy storage. B. component of DNA and RNA. C. bone structure. D. regulation of heart rhythm.
d. regulation of heart rhythm
What percentage of adults is sodium sensitive?
A. 10% - 15% B. 25% - 30% C. 45% - 50% D. 70% - 75%
A. 10% - 15%
Oxalic acid can inhibit the absorption of
A. vitamin A.
B. thiamin.
C. calcium.
D. protein.
c. calcium
Which of the following does not describe fat-soluble vitamins?
a. They are stored in the body
b. Excess are excreted in the urine
c. They are transported via bloodstream
d. They tend to exist in several biologically active forms
b. Excess are excreted in the urine
Aldosterone signals the kidneys to conserve
a. Sodium
b. Potassium
c. Chloride
d. phosphate
a. sodium
6. Consumption of a diet high in salt by a healthy individual will
A. cause damage to the kidneys.
B. result in edema.
C. increase fecal excretion of sodium.
D. increase urinary excretion of sodium.
D. increase urinary excretion of sodium.
Which of the following is true about mineral bioavailability?
A. Minerals from plants are better absorbed than those from animal products
B. Minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants
C. The trace mineral content of plants is relatively constant no matter which soil serves as the medium
D. Refining foods will increase the trace mineral content
B. Minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants
Adult men need how much total water intake per day?
A. 2.0 liters
B. 2.7 liters
C. 3.0 liters
D. 3.7 liters
D. 3.7 liters
Which of the following population groups requires the least sodium?
A. adults through age 50
B. Adults age 51-70
C. Adults age 71 and older
D. Sodium requirements are the same for all adults
C. Adults age 71 and older
The body's need for water is approximately ___ milliliter(s) per kilocalorie.
A. 3
B. 2
C. 1
D. 0.5
c. 1
About 95% of Americans exceed the upper level for
A. water
B. sodium
C. potassium
D. calcium
B. sodium