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203 Cards in this Set

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1. Which of the following statements does not describe the role of minerals in the body?
a. They make possible the transfer of nerve impulses
b. They are constituents of important body compounds
c. They provide 4 kilocalories per gram
d. They help maintain water balance
c. They provide 4 kilocalories per gram
2. Which of the following does not describe fat-soluble vitamins?
a. They are stored in the body
b. Excesses are excreted in the urine
c. They are transported via the bloodstream
d. They tend to exist in several biologically active forms
b. Excesses are excreted in the urine
3. Adult men need how much total water intake per day?
a. 2.0 liters
b. 2.7 liters
c. 3.0 liters
d. 3.7 liters
d. 3.7 liters
4. Metabolic water refers to
a. rehydration beverages that contain electrolytes.
b. water that is formed as a byproduct of the breakdown of macronutrients for energy.
c. water that is conserved by the kidneys.
d. fluids that are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
b. water that is formed as a byproduct of the breakdown of macronutrients for energy.
5. Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?
a. Water-soluble ones are stored, whereas fat-soluble ones are excreted readily
b. Water-soluble are less likely to be toxic
c. Fat-soluble vitamins have much less potential for toxicity
d. Water-soluble vitamins are best absorbed in the presence of dietary fat
b. Water-soluble are less likely to be toxic
6. Water regulates body temperature through heat loss via
a. conduction.
b. Radiation
c. Respiration
d. Evaporation
d. Evaporation
8. A marathon runner who consumes excessive water during a race is at risk for
a. hyperkalemia.
b. hyponatremia.
c. dehydration.
d. heat stroke.
b. hyponatremia.
9. Which of the following populations is especially sodium-sensitive?
a. Caucasians
b. Asian Americans
c. African Americans
d. Native Americans
c. African Americans
10. What percentage of adults is sodium sensitive?
a. 10% - 15%
b. 25% - 30%
c. 45% - 50%
d. 70% - 75%
a. 10% - 15%
1. Of the following foods, which one is lowest in sodium?
a. Pepperoni pizza
b. Macaroni salad
c. Milk
d. Grape Juice
d. Grape Juice
2. Which of the following is true about mineral bioavailability?
a. Minerals from plants are better absorbed than those from animal products
b. Minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants
c. The trace mineral content of plants is relatively constant no matter which soil serves as the medium
d. Refining foods will increase the trace mineral content
b. Minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants
4. Depletion of chloride is mostly likely to occur with excessive
a. Dieting
b. Vomiting
c. Diarrhea
d. Sweating
b. Vomiting
5. Mucus, saliva, and synovial (joint) fluid exemplify water's role as a
a. Lubricant
b. Solvent
c. Medium for transport
d. All of these choices are correct
a. Lubricant
6. Bottled water is regulated by
a. USDA
b. EPA
c. FDA
d. All of these choices are correct
c. FDA
7. Megadoses are defined as vitamin intakes ________ times the estimated human needs to prevent a deficiency.
a. 1 to 3
b. 3 to 5
c. 2 to 10
d. 50
c. 2 to 10
8. An adult whose blood pressure is 135/88 should do all of the following except
a. increase his intake of fruits and vegetables.
b. include 2 - 3 servings per day of whole milk.
c. limit meat intake to 2 servings per day.
d. choose whole grain products rather than refined grain products.
b. include 2 - 3 servings per day of whole milk.
9. Which of the following is true about the intake of vitamins?
a. Supplemental vitamins are better than those from food
b. Occasional lapses in vitamin intake should cause no harm
c. It is hard to get all the vitamins we need from food
d. Vitamins consumed in excess are excreted
b. Occasional lapses in vitamin intake should cause no harm
1. Liver and lung damage of chromium toxicity can occur from
a. exposure to industrial waste.
b. daily consumption of egg yolks.
c. daily consumption of beef liver.
d. All of these choices are correct.
a. exposure to industrial waste.
2. A major source of iodide in the North American diet is
a. seaweed.
b. Sea salt
c. Table salt
d. Carbonated soft drinks
c. Table salt
3. A pantothenic acid deficiency
a. is very unlikely because of its widespread availability.
b. is very likely.
c. occurs commonly in children.
d. occurs commonly in the elderly.
a. is very unlikely because of its widespread availability.
4. Growth retardation and poor sexual development occur with a deficiency of
a. Thiamin
b. Niacin
c. Iron
d. Zinc
d. Zinc
5. Which of the following are the best thiamin sources?
a. Pork, whole grains, enriched cereals, legumes
b. Root vegetables, cheddar-type cheese, deep yellow/orange fruits and vegetables
c. Ham, vegetables of the cabbage family, whole grains
d. Milk, beef, deep yellow/orange fruits and vegetables
a. Pork, whole grains, enriched cereals, legumes
6. We get most of the sulfur in our diet from
a. Carbohydrates
b. Water
c. Fats and oils
d. Proteins
d. Proteins
7. Milk is a poor source of
a. Calcium
b. Iron and calcium
c. Iron and vitamin C
d. Vitamin A and protein
c. Iron and vitamin C
8. Copper's functions consist of all the following except
a. connective tissue formation.
b. thyroid hormone synthesis.
c. iron release from storage.
d. hemoglobin formation.
b. thyroid hormone synthesis.
8. Copper's functions consist of all the following except
a. connective tissue formation.
b. thyroid hormone synthesis.
c. iron release from storage.
d. hemoglobin formation.
b. thyroid hormone synthesis.
9. The vitamin that functions as a coenzyme, particularly in carbohydrate metabolism, is
a. Thiamin
b. Pyridoxine
c. Niacin
d. Riboflavin
a. Thiamin
1. We get most of the sulfur in our diet from
a. Carbohydrates
b. Water
c. Fats and oils
d. Proteins
d. Proteins
2. Functions of choline include all of the following except
a. red blood cell synthesis.
b. neurotransmitter synthesis.
c. component of cell membranes.
d. homocysteine metabolism.
a. red blood cell synthesis.
3. The nutrient essential for synthesis of several blood clotting factors is
a. vitamin A.
b. vitamin C.
c. vitamin E.
d. vitamin K.
d. vitamin K.
5. What disease is caused by a thiamin deficiency?
a. Pellagra
b. Scurvy
c. Kwashiorkor
d. Beriberi
d. Beriberi
7. Vitamin B-6, folate, and vitamin B-12 are required for the metabolism of
a. Niacin
b. Homocysteine
c. Iron
d. Fatty acids
b. Homocysteine
8. Manganese functions as
a. a component of many different enzymes.
b. a component of thyroid hormone.
c. cofactor for the absorption of vitamin A.
d. an essential mineral for amino acid metabolism.
a. a component of many different enzymes.
9. An important role of vitamin K is the synthesis of
a. alpha-tocopherol.
b. Rhodopsin
c. Retinol
d. Prothrombin
d. Prothrombin
1. If an athlete's body fat level is too high, what is the best weight loss approach?
a. Follow an 800 kcalorie eating plan.
b. Wear a rubber suit to sweat off extra weight.
c. Eat about 200 to 500 kcalories less per day.
d. Restrict dietary carbohydrates
c. Eat about 200 to 500 kcalories less per day.
2. All of the following are true about sports drinks except
a. they inhibit performance during short-duration activities.
b. they replenish electrolytes.
c. they replenish fluids.
d. they taste better than water.
a. they inhibit performance during short-duration activities.
3. The protein intake per day for a muscle-building athlete should be _____ grams per kilogram body weight.
a. 0.6 to 0.8
b. 0.8 to 1.5
c. 1.5 to 1.7
d. 2.5 to 3.0
c. 1.5 to 1.7
4. Which of the following is true about the vitamin and mineral intake of athletes?
a. Vitamins have known ergogenic benefits
b. Minerals have known ergogenic benefits.
c. Athletes tend not to eat enough vitamins and minerals.
d. Most athletes tend to consume ample vitamins and minerals if they meet their kcalorie needs.
d. Most athletes tend to consume ample vitamins and minerals if they meet their kcalorie needs.
6. ATP and phosphocreatine are major energy sources for events lasting how long?
a. 1 minute
b. 5 minutes
c. 10 minutes
d. 30 minutes
a. 1 minute
7. If a woman athlete is not menstruating regularly, she should do all the following except
a. exercise more intensely.
b. increase her kcalorie intake.
c. get adequate calcium in the diet.
d. have her body fat percentage checked.
a. exercise more intensely.
8. For every pound lost during a workout, cup(s) of water should be consumed during or after exercise.
a. ½
b. 1
c. 1.75
d. 3
d. 3
10. Anabolic steroid use may cause all of the following side effects except
a. stunting growth in teenage athletes.
b. Cardiovascular disease
c. Body fat loss
d. “roid rage” (extreme mood swings)
c. Body fat loss
1. A 120-pound woman is attempting to be a bodybuilder so she would like to gain large quantities of muscle mass. Her daily protein intake should be how many grams?
a. 32 to 59
b. 65 to 87
c. 82 to 93
d. 44 to 81
c. 82 to 93
2. To preserve iron status, a female athlete should do all of the following except
a. take iron supplements regularly.
b. have her blood hemoglobin level checked regularly.
c. take iron supplements if anemic.
d. eat iron-fortified breakfast cereals.
a. take iron supplements regularly.
3. All of the following are good practices to keep well hydrated except
a. taking salt tablets and drinking plenty of fluid before the workout.
b. drinking freely up to 2 hours before an event.
c. consuming 1.5 to 2.5 cups of fluid 2-3 hours prior to the event start.
d. consuming 0.5 to 1.5 cups of fluid every 15 minutes during the workout.
a. taking salt tablets and drinking plenty of fluid before the workout.
4. To help maintain adequate glycogen stores, an endurance athlete should eat
a. Broccoli and cheese soup
b. Bagels and oranges
c. Peanut butter and apples
d. Tuna sandwich and milk
b. Bagels and oranges
6. Which of the following is true about the vitamin and mineral intake of athletes?
a. Vitamins have known ergogenic benefits.
b. Minerals have known ergogenic benefits.
c. Athletes tend not to eat enough vitamins and minerals
d. Most athletes tend to consume ample vitamins and minerals if they meet their kcalorie needs
d. Most athletes tend to consume ample vitamins and minerals if they meet their kcalorie needs
7. For which of the following activities would carbohydrate loading be warranted?
a. Marathon
b. Weight Lifting
c. Football
d. 10 kilometer race
a. Marathon
9. If a woman athlete is not menstruating regularly, she should do all the following except
a. exercise more intensely.
b. increase her kcalorie intake.
c. get adequate calcium in the diet.
d. have her body fat percentage checked.
a. exercise more intensely.
1. Most of the extra calcium for pregnancy is needed during which trimester(s)?
a. First
b. Third
c. Second
d. Calcium needs do not increase
d. Calcium needs do not increase
2. During the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, an average of ______ extra kcalories per day are needed.
a. 150-250
b. 250-350
c. 350-450
d. 450-550
c. 350-450
3. The best way for a calcium-deficient pregnant woman to get the calcium she needs is to consume
a. Fruits
b. Vegetables
c. Legumes
d. Low-fat milk and cheese
d. Low-fat milk and cheese
4. The duration of pregnancy normally is ______ weeks.
a. 30-34
b. 32-36
c. 35-39
d. 38-42
d. 38-42
5. Low iodide status during the first trimester of pregnancy may lead to
a. Hypertension
b. Gestational diabetes
c. Edema
d. Cretinism
d. Cretinism
6. The U.S. Public Health Service and the March of Dimes recommend that all women of childbearing age should take a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement that contains
a. 400 micrograms of folic acid.
b. 15 milligrams of iron.
c. 500 milligrams of calcium.
d. 40 micrograms of zinc.
a. 400 micrograms of folic acid.
7. Which of the following is true about protein intake during pregnancy?
a. The RDA for protein increases by about 25 grams per day over that for the nonpregnant state.
b. Women probably do not get enough protein in typical diets to meet their total needs for pregnancy.
c. The RDA for protein increases by about 10 to 15 grams per day.
d. The RDA for protein increases by about 5 to 10 grams per day.
a. The RDA for protein increases by about 25 grams per day over that for the nonpregnant state.
8. Which of the following is true about lactation?
a. Only about 50 percent of all women can breastfeed.
b. The most significant reason why women do not breastfeed is that they cannot produce enough milk.
c. Some women cannot breastfeed because they do not have big enough breasts.
d. The major reason why women do not breastfeed is lack of information.
d. The major reason why women do not breastfeed is lack of information.
9. Patricia's physician tells her she needs more folate in her diet during pregnancy. She should do which of the following?
a. Drink orange juice
b. Eat beef
c. Eat more cheese
d. Eat more fish
a. Drink orange juice
10. During the first trimester, a woman should gain ______ pounds.
a. 1 to 3
b. 2 to 4
c. 5 to 9
d. 10 to 14
b. 2 to 4
1. Millie has a low pre-pregnancy body mass index, classifying her as underweight. Her weight gain goal should be how many pounds?
a. 10 to 15
b. 15 to 25
c. 25 to 35
d. 28 to 40
d. 28 to 40
3. The organ that nourishes the fetus in the mother's womb is called the
a. Ovum
b. Umbilicus
c. Placenta
d. Embryo
c. Placenta
5. Which of the following statements is important for infant feeding?
a. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of a child's life.
b. Breastfeeding has no advantage over formula-feeding, so the latter is the feeding practice of choice.
c. Working mothers should avoid breastfeeding.
d. Cows' milk can be introduced safely when the child is 3 months old.
a. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of a child's life.
6. Which of the following is a federal program for reducing infant mortality by providing nutritional support and counseling?
a. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
b. Nutrition Supplement Program (NSP)
c. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC)
d. Regional Nutrition Counseling Program (RNCP)
c. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC)
7. Which of the following is not true about the let-down reflex?
a. It is needed to make milk available to the infant.
b. It can be inhibited by anxiety or nervous tension.
c. It is triggered by the release of the hormone estrogen.
d. After a few weeks of lactation, it becomes automatic.
c. It is triggered by the release of the hormone estrogen.
8. Barb wants to make sure she gets adequate folate during her pregnancy. She should do which of the following?
a. Drink more milk
b. Eat more ready-to-eat breakfast cereals
c. Eat more meat
d. Eat more legumes
b. Eat more ready-to-eat breakfast cereals
9. The U.S. Public Health Service and the March of Dimes recommend that all women of childbearing age should take a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement that contains
a. 400 micrograms of folic acid.
b. 15 milligrams of iron.
c. 500 milligrams of calcium.
d. 40 micrograms of zinc.
a. 400 micrograms of folic acid.
Inadequate hydration may increase risk for
A. hyponatremia.
B. kidney stones.
C. hypertension.
D. hypokalemia.
B. kidney stones.
Which of the following is true about mineral bioavailability? A. Minerals from plants are better absorbed than those from animal products
B. Minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants
C. The trace mineral content of plants is relatively constant no matter which soil serves as the medium
D. Refining foods will increase the trace mineral content
A. Minerals from plants are better absorbed than those from animal products
Depletion of chloride is mostly likely to occur with excessive
A. dieting.
B. vomiting.
C. diarrhea.
D. sweating.
B. vomiting.
Joe is a wrestler and during his workouts he loses 2 pounds. How much water would he have to drink to replenish this water weight loss?
A. 2 cups
B. 3 cups
C. 4 cups
D. 5 cups
C. 4 cups
For which of the following people are sports drinks with electrolytes most appropriate?
A. A student who needs to stay up late to study for an exam
B. An athlete who competes in a marathon
C. An athlete who competes in the 46-meter dash
D. An elderly adult
B. An athlete who competes in a marathon
The two most significant extracellular ions are
A. sodium and chloride.
B. phosphate and potassium.
C. potassium and sodium.
D. chloride and potassium.
A. sodium and chloride.
According to the RDA, the mineral that you need in the largest amount is
A. iron.
B. iodine.
C. calcium.
D. copper.
C. calcium.
The body's need for water is approximately ___ milliliter(s) per kilocalorie.
A. 3
B. 2
C. 1
D. 0.5
C. 1
Symptoms of dehydration include all of the following except
A. heat intolerance.
B. low blood pressure.
C. slowed heart rate.
D. dry skin.
C. slowed heart rate.
All foods in their unprocessed form tend to be low in sodium except
A. milk and dairy products.
B. whole grains.
C. legumes.
D. fruits.
A. milk and dairy products.
Oxalic acid can inhibit the absorption of
A. vitamin A.
B. thiamin.
C. calcium.
D. protein.
C. calcium.
Phosphorus deficiency is a likely result of
A. vitamin D deficiency.
B. inadequate dietary phosphorus intake.
C. excessive consumption of phytic acid and oxalic acid.
D. compromised kidney function.
B. inadequate dietary phosphorus intake.
Which statement about vitamins is true?
A. Cannot be stored by the body
B. Are inorganic
C. Help regulate chemical reactions in the body
D. Directly supply energy
C. Help regulate chemical reactions in the body
Hypertension is defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure at or above ___________ mm Hg.
A. 100/50
B. 120/80
C. 140/90
D. 180/100
C. 140/90
Which of the following is most likely to result in vitamin toxicity if consumed daily over a long period of time?A. Vitamin A supplements
B. B vitamin complex
C. Fortified breakfast cereals
D. Spinach, kale, and other greens
A. Vitamin A supplements
Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?
A. Water-soluble ones are stored, whereas fat-soluble ones are excreted readily
B. Water-soluble are less likely to be toxic
C. Fat-soluble vitamins have much less potential for toxicity
D. Water-soluble vitamins are best absorbed in the presence of dietary fat
B. Water-soluble are less likely to be toxic
All the following are true of B vitamins except
A. are water soluble.
B. serve as coenzymes.
C. can be lost during food processing and preparation.
D. are stored in adipose tissue.
D. are stored in adipose tissue.
Consumption of a diet high in salt by a healthy individual will
A. cause damage to the kidneys.
B. result in edema.
C. increase fecal excretion of sodium.
D. increase urinary excretion of sodium.
D. increase urinary excretion of sodium.
If the intracellular concentration of ions is greater than the extracellular concentration of ions, fluid will
A. move into the cell.
B. move out of the cell.
C. not change.
D. evaporate.
A. move into the cell.
Which of the following is not true about the regulation of fluid in the body?
A. Thirst is a reliable indicator of how much water should be consumed to replenish body fluids
B. Antidiuretic hormone is released to force the kidney to conserve water
C. There is a limit to how concentrated the kidney can make the urine
D. Even though the kidney can effectively conserve water, insensible water losses must be replenished
A. Thirst is a reliable indicator of how much water should be consumed to replenish body fluids
The vitamin content of foods is diminished by all of the following except
A. exposure to light.
B. cooking in water.
C. freezing.
D. alkalinity.
C. freezing.
The two most significant extracellular ions are
A. sodium and chloride.
B. phosphate and potassium.
C. potassium and sodium.
D. chloride and potassium.
A. sodium and chloride.
Which of the following electrolytes is especially important for proper heart rhythm?
A. Sodium
B. Potassium
C. Chloride
D. Phosphate
B. Potassium
1. Which of the following populations is not at risk for low blood potassium?
a. Vegetarians
b. Alcoholics
c. People with eating disorders
d. People who exercise heavily
a. Vegetarians
3. Which of the following meals could be consumed by a person following a low-sodium diet?
a. Chicken noodle soup, oyster crackers, and a tossed green salad with ranch dressing
b. Chicken tenders, French fries, and sliced apples from a fast food restaurant
c. A homemade chicken casserole made with canned green beans and cream of mushroom soup
d. Homemade oven-baked chicken, buttered rice, and steamed fresh green beans
d. Homemade oven-baked chicken, buttered rice, and steamed fresh green beans
5. For a healthy adult, the largest percentage of daily water output is attributed to
a. Feces
b. Urine
c. Perspiration
d. Lung respiration
b. Urine
6. The DASH diet for reduction of hypertension
a. Excludes added sugars
b. Is a vegetarian meal plan
c. Recommends 2-3 servings per day of low-fat dairy products
d. Reinforces the “five-a-day” message
c. Recommends 2-3 servings per day of low-fat dairy products
7. Obesity
a. Reduces risk for hypertension
b. Is a minor contributor to risk for hypertension
c. Is the number one lifestyle risk factor for hypertension
d. Is not related to hypertension
c. Is the number one lifestyle risk factor for hypertension
8. Intracellular water volume depends primarily on the concentration of
a. Sodium and chloride
b. Phosphate and potassium
c. Potassium and sodium
d. Chloride and potassium
b. Phosphate and potassium
10. Which of the following is most likely to result in vitamin toxicity if consumed daily over a long period of time?
a. Vitamin A supplements
b. B vitamin complex
c. Fortified breakfast cereals
d. Spinach, kale, and other greens
a. Vitamin A supplements
Which of the following is not commonly present in food as a food additive?
A. Sodium
B. Chloride
C. Potassium
D. Phosphorus
C. Potassium
Which of the following foods is not a good source of potassium?
A. Squash
B. 2% milk
C. Whole grain pasta
D. Canola oil
D. Canola oil
About 95% of Americans exceed the upper level for
A. water.
B. sodium.
C. potassium.
D. calcium.
B. sodium.
The B vitamins generally function as
A. antioxidants.
B. coenzymes.
C. emulsifiers.
D. reducing agents.
B. coenzymes.
Consumption of a diet high in salt by a healthy individual will
A. cause damage to the kidneys.
B. result in edema.
C. increase fecal excretion of sodium.
D. increase urinary excretion of sodium.
D. increase urinary excretion of sodium.
2.Which of the following supposedly increases free fatty acids in the blood?
A. Caffeine
B. Growth hormone
C. Phosphate loading
D. Bicarbonate loading
A. Caffeine
3.A regular physical activity program should include all the following except
A. a warmup.
B. a frequency of 2 times per week.
C. a heart rate of 60 percent to 70 percent of maximum.
D. at least 20 to 30 minutes duration.
B. a frequency of 2 times per week.
5.For every pound lost during a workout, cup(s) of water should be consumed during or after exercise.
A. 1/2
B. 1
C. 1.75
D. 3
D. 3
6. All of the following are good practices to keep well hydrated except
A. taking salt tablets and drinking plenty of fluid before the workout.
B. drinking freely up to 2 hours before an event.
C. consuming 1.5 to 2.5 cups of fluid 2-3 hours prior to the event start.
D. consuming 0.5 to 1.5 cups of fluid every 15 minutes during the workout.
A. taking salt tablets and drinking plenty of fluid before the workout.
7. A well-tolerated exercise for overweight people is

A. basketball.
B. jogging.
C. bicycling.
D. aerobic dance.
C. bicycling.
8. Joe loses 7 pounds during basketball practice. How many cups of water must he consume to replenish this loss?
A. 7
B. 10
C. 14
D. 21
D. 21
9.Which of the following does not have an ergogenic effect according to your text?
A. Growth hormone
B. Carnitine
C. Anabolic steroids
D. Blood doping
B. Carnitine
10.The protein intake per day for a muscle-building athlete should be _____ grams per kilogram body weight.
A. 0.6 to 0.8
B. 0.8 to 1.5
C. 1.5 to 1.7
D. 2.5 to 3.0
C. 1.5 to 1.7
Which of the following is true about the vitamin and mineral intake of athletes?
A. Vitamins have known ergogenic benefits.
B. Minerals have known ergogenic benefits.
C. Athletes tend not to eat enough vitamins and minerals.
D. Most athletes tend to consume ample vitamins and minerals if they meet their kcalorie needs.
D. Most athletes tend to consume ample vitamins and minerals if they meet their kcalorie needs.
Which of the following supposedly increases free fatty acids in the blood?
A. Caffeine
B. Growth hormone
C. Phosphate loading
D. Bicarbonate loading
A. Caffeine
Joe loses 7 pounds during basketball practice. How many cups of water must he consume to replenish this loss?
A. 7
B. 10
C. 14
D. 21
D. 21
If an athlete's body fat level is too high, what is the best weight loss approach?
A. Follow an 800 kcalorie eating plan.
B. Wear a rubber suit to sweat off extra weight.
C. Eat about 200 to 500 kcalories less per day.
D. Restrict dietary carbohydrates.
C. Eat about 200 to 500 kcalories less per day.
To preserve iron status, a female athlete should do all of the following except
A. take iron supplements regularly.
B. have her blood hemoglobin level checked regularly.
C. take iron supplements if anemic.
D. eat iron-fortified breakfast cereals.
A. take iron supplements regularly.
The protein intake per day for a muscle-building athlete should be _____ grams per kilogram body weight.
A. 0.6 to 0.8
B. 0.8 to 1.5
C. 1.5 to 1.7
D. 2.5 to 3.0
C. 1.5 to 1.7
The conversion of glucose to lactic acid is called
A. aerobic glucose breakdown.
B. anaerobic glucose breakdown.
C. aerobic glycogen breakdown.
D. anaerobic glycogen breakdown.
B. anaerobic glucose breakdown.
A 120-pound woman is attempting to be a bodybuilder so she would like to gain large quantities of muscle mass. Her daily protein intake should be how many grams?
A. 32 to 59
B. 65 to 87
C. 82 to 93
D. 44 to 81
C. 82 to 93
Which of the following is a good pre-event meal?
A. Bacon, lettuce, and tomato sandwich
B. Milk shake
C. Cheese and sausage pizza
D. Oatmeal with whole fruit
D. Oatmeal with whole fruit
If an athlete's body fat level is too high, what is the best weight loss approach?
A. Follow an 800 kcalorie eating plan.
B. Wear a rubber suit to sweat off extra weight.
C. Eat about 200 to 500 kcalories less per day.
D. Restrict dietary carbohydrates.
C. Eat about 200 to 500 kcalories less per day.
The conversion of glucose to lactic acid is called
A. aerobic glucose breakdown.
B. anaerobic glucose breakdown.
C. aerobic glycogen breakdown.
D. anaerobic glycogen breakdown.
B. anaerobic glucose breakdown.
A regular physical activity program should include all the following except
A. a warmup.
B. a frequency of 2 times per week.
C. a heart rate of 60 percent to 70 percent of maximum.
D. at least 20 to 30 minutes duration.
B. a frequency of 2 times per week.
1.If a child is born prematurely during the third trimester
A. the child will have minimal nutritional problems.
B. the child may have problems sucking and swallowing.
C. the child will almost always die.
D. the infant will maintain adequate mineral and fat stores.
B. the child may have problems sucking and swallowing.
3.Which of the following is true about protein intake during pregnancy?

A. The RDA for protein increases by about 25 grams per day over that for the nonpregnant state.
B. Women probably do not get enough protein in typical diets to meet their total needs for pregnancy.
C. The RDA for protein increases by about 10 to 15 grams per day.
D. The RDA for protein increases by about 5 to 10 grams per day.
A. The RDA for protein increases by about 25 grams per day over that for the nonpregnant state.
4.Rachel is pregnant and has morning sickness. She should do all the following except

A. eat dry soda crackers upon waking.
B. cook with windows open to dissipate nauseating smells.
C. eat large, less frequent meals.
D. avoid fatty and fried foods.
C. eat large, less frequent meals.
5.Sue has a high prepregnancy body mass index, classifying her as overweight. Her weight gain goal should be how many pounds?

A. 10 to 15
B. 15 to 25
C. 25 to 35
D. 28 to 40
B. 15 to 25
7.Millie has a low pre-pregnancy body mass index, classifying her as underweight. Her weight gain goal should be how many pounds?

A. 10 to 15
B. 15 to 25
C. 25 to 35
D. 28 to 40
D. 28 to 40
8.A low-birth-weight infant weighs ______ pounds.

A. 6.5 to 7.5
B. 5.5 to 6.5
C. less than 5.5
D. less than 3.5
C. less than 5.5
Which of the following is true about lactation?
A. Only about 50 percent of all women can breastfeed.
B. The most significant reason why women do not breastfeed is that they cannot produce enough milk.
C. Some women cannot breastfeed because they do not have big enough breasts.
D. The major reason why women do not breastfeed is lack of information.
D. The major reason why women do not breastfeed is lack of information.
Low iodide status during the first trimester of pregnancy may lead to
A. hypertension.
B. gestational diabetes.
C. edema.
D. cretinism.
D. cretinism.
All of the following are advantages to breastfeeding except
A. fewer gastrointestinal infections.
B. fewer respiratory infections.
C. increased risk of developing food allergies.
D. decreased financial costs.
C. increased risk of developing food allergies.
During the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, an average of ______ extra kcalories per day are needed.
A. 150 - 250
B. 250 - 350
C. 350 - 450
D. 450 - 550
C. 350 - 450
The first trimester of pregnancy
A. involves a rapid increase in cell size rather than cell number.
B. is the least critical time during fetal development.
C. is a time of particular importance to avoid nutritional deficiencies and insults to prevent harm to the fetus.
D. is a time when nutritional deficiencies have little effect on the developing fetus.
C. is a time of particular importance to avoid nutritional deficiencies and insults to prevent harm to the fetus.
Extra kcalories for pregnancy are needed mostly during which trimester(s)?
A. First
B. Second and third
C. Second
D. First and third
B. Second and third
Barb wants to make sure she gets adequate folate during her pregnancy. She should do which of the following?
A. Drink more milk.
B. Eat more ready-to-eat breakfast cereals.
C. Eat more meat.
D. Eat more legumes.
B. Eat more ready-to-eat breakfast cereals.
Consumption of non-food items such as laundry starch, ice, and dirt is known as
A. hyperemesis.
B. pica.
C. pregnancy-induced hypertension.
D. eclampsia.
B. pica.
Advantages of breastfeeding include all of the following except
A. improves infant's vision.
B. reduces the risk of food allergies.
C. provides antibodies while infant's immune system is still immature.
D. decreases ear infections.
A. improves infant's vision
Obesity during pregnancy is associated with all the following except
A. high blood pressure.
B. diabetes during pregnancy.
C. a low-birth-weight infant.
D. surgical complications.
C. a low-birth-weight infant.
Constipation is a common problem during pregnancy. All the of following practices can be helpful except
A. avoiding too much fluid.
B. consuming more dietary fiber.
C. consuming dried fruits such as raisins.
D. engaging in aerobic exercise regularly.
A. avoiding too much fluid.
During pregnancy, a woman should use MyPyramid and consume
A. 1-2 cups of calcium-rich foods from the milk and cheese group.
B. 2 ounce equivalents from the meat group.
C. 3 cups of calcium-rich foods from the milk and cheese group.
D. 4 ounce equivalents from the grain group.
C. 3 cups of calcium-rich foods from the milk and cheese group.
During pregnancy, it is particularly important to make sure to consume adequate
A. saturated fatty acids.
B. trans fatty acids.
C. cholesterol.
D. essential fatty acids—linoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3).
D. essential fatty acids—linoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3).
The first trimester of pregnancy
A. involves a rapid increase in cell size rather than cell number.
B. is the least critical time during fetal development.
C. is a time of particular importance to avoid nutritional deficiencies and insults to prevent harm to the fetus.
D. is a time when nutritional deficiencies have little effect on the developing fetus.
C. is a time of particular importance to avoid nutritional deficiencies and insults to prevent harm to the fetus.
Patricia's physician tells her she needs more folate in her diet during pregnancy. She should do which of the following?
A. Drink orange juice.
B. Eat beef.
C. Eat more cheese.
D. Eat more fish.
A. Drink orange juice.
During each feeding, human milk changes composition in which of the following ways?
A. carbohydrate increases
B. fat increases
C. minerals decrease
D. protein decreases
B. fat increases
Which of the following statements is important for infant feeding?
A. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of a child's life.
B. Breastfeeding has no advantage over formula-feeding, so the latter is the feeding practice of choice.
C. Working mothers should avoid breastfeeding.
D. Cows' milk can be introduced safely when the child is 3 months old.
A. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of a child's life.
During pregnancy, symptoms such as high blood pressure, excess protein in the urine, edema, changes in blood clotting, and nervous system disorders are associated with a condition called A. essential hypertension.
B. pregnancy-induced hypertension.
C. primary hypertension.
D. secondary hypertension.
B. pregnancy-induced hypertension.
All of the following are barriers to breastfeeding except
A. lack of role models.
B. having to carry a lot of equipment when traveling.
C. misinformation.
D. fear of appearing immodest.
B. having to carry a lot of equipment when traveling.
All of the following are true about prenatal supplements for pregnancy except
A. there is significant evidence that they are harmful.
B. supplements of vitamin A can be dangerous.
C. supplements commonly contain iron and folate.
D. physicians routinely prescribe them.
A. there is significant evidence that they are harmful.
All of the following are true about folate and pregnancy except
A. folate deficiency in pregnancy is associated with birth defects such as spina bifida.
B. the RDA for folate increases by 50 percent.
C. most breakfast cereals can be used by pregnant women to get folate because these cereals are fortified with folate.
D. if pregnant women eat folate-rich fruits and vegetables as suggested in the MyPyramid Food Plan they cannot meet their folate needs.
D. if pregnant women eat folate-rich fruits and vegetables as suggested in the MyPyramid Food Plan they cannot meet their folate needs.
For most pregnancies, women need to consume supplemental
A. calcium.
B. vitamin D.
C. zinc.
D. iron.
D. iron.
Mineral needs generally are increased during pregnancy. All of the following are needed in higher quantities except
A. iron.
B. iodine.
C. sodium.
D. zinc.
C. sodium.
The need for extra iron during pregnancy is greatest during which trimester(s)?
A. First
B. First and second
C. Second
D. Second and third
D. Second and third
Which trimester is an especially critical period when poor nutrition or drug use can result in birth defects?
A. First
B. Second
C. Third
D. Final
A. First
Which of the following is a suggested practice as far as exercise and pregnancy are
concerned?
A. Play basketball regularly in a hot, humid gym
B. Drink plenty of fluids
C. Strengthen the legs by performing deep knee bends
D. Discontinue exercise during the third trimester
B. Drink plenty of fluids
The best way for a calcium-deficient pregnant woman to get the calcium she needs is to
consume
A. fruits.
B. vegetables.
C. legumes.
D. low-fat milk and cheese.
D. low-fat milk and cheese.
Women suffering from chronic alcoholism produce children with a recognizable pattern of malformations called
A. chronic cirrhosis.
B. muscular dystrophy.
C. cystic fibrosis.
D. fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).
D. fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).
Which of the following is not true about the let-down reflex?
A. It is needed to make milk available to the infant.
B. It can be inhibited by anxiety or nervous tension.
C. It is triggered by the release of the hormone estrogen.
D. After a few weeks of lactation, it becomes automatic.
C. It is triggered by the release of the hormone estrogen.
Carol has heartburn during her pregnancy. She should do all of the following except

a. eat less fat.
b. lie down after she eats.
c. avoid spicy food.
d. consume liquids between meals.
b. lie down after she eats.
Breast milk production requires approximately ____ kcalories per day?

a. 200
b. 400
c. 800
d. 1,000
c. 800
The hormone that triggers "let down" or milk release is
A. oxytocin.
B. prolactin.
C. estrogen.
D. progesterone.
A. oxytocin.
All of the following are true about prenatal supplements for pregnancy except
A. there is significant evidence that they are harmful.
B. supplements of vitamin A can be dangerous.
C. supplements commonly contain iron and folate.
D. physicians routinely prescribe them.
A. there is significant evidence that they are harmful.
All of the following are advantages to breastfeeding except
A. fewer gastrointestinal infections.
B. fewer respiratory infections.
C. increased risk of developing food allergies.
D. decreased financial costs.
C. increased risk of developing food allergies.
Which of the following is true about lifestyle habits and pregnancy?
A. Repeated intake of four or more alcoholic drinks at one sitting harm(s) the fetus.
B. It is vital that mothers abstain from NutraSweet because the phenylalanine present can cause mental retardation in most babies.
C. Cigarette smoking should be limited to one pack per day.
D. The only risk to the baby when a mother uses cocaine is cocaine addiction.
A. Repeated intake of four or more alcoholic drinks at one sitting harm(s) the fetus.
The best food source of iron is
A. whole wheat bread.
B. egg yolk.
C. raisins.
D. liver.
D. liver.
Liver and lung damage of chromium toxicity can occur from
A. exposure to industrial waste.
B. daily consumption of egg yolks.
C. daily consumption of beef liver.
D. All of these choices are correct.
A. exposure to industrial waste.
The amount of iron in the body is mostly regulated by
A. excretion in the urine.
B. absorption in the small intestine.
C. absorption through the skin.
D. absorption in the large intestine.
B. absorption in the small intestine.
Which of the following minerals is not a cofactor for enzymes used in energy metabolism?
A. Copper
B. Magnesium
C. Manganese
D. Molybdenum
A. Copper
The foods that provide the largest source of riboflavin in the American diet are
A. meats.
B. whole grain cereals.
C. milk and dairy products.
D. dark green leafy vegetables.
C. milk and dairy products.
An important role of vitamin K is the synthesis of
A. alpha-tocopherol.
B. rhodopsin.
C. retinol.
D. prothrombin.
D. prothrombin.
Manganese functions as
A. a component of many different enzymes.
B. a component of thyroid hormone.
C. cofactor for the absorption of vitamin A.
D. an essential mineral for amino acid metabolism.
A. a component of many different enzymes.
Vitamin B-6, folate, and vitamin B-12 are required for the metabolism of
A. niacin.
B. homocysteine.
C. iron.
D. fatty acids.
B. homocysteine.
A deficiency of vitamin B-6 can result in depression, headaches, and confusion. These occur because of impaired
A. hemoglobin synthesis.
B. glucose metabolism.
C. neurotransmitter synthesis.
D. myelin synthesis.
C. neurotransmitter synthesis.
Which of the following techniques is best for preserving the vitamin content of cooked broccoli?
A. Boiling to tenderness
B. Addition of baking soda
C. Steaming until crisp-tender
D. Deep frying
C. Steaming until crisp-tender
A disorder that causes increased iron absorption leading to organ toxicity is
A. hemochromatosis.
B. hemolysis.
C. pellagra.
D. anemia.
A. hemochromatosis.
Biotin absorption is inhibited by
A. phytate.
B. oxalate.
C. avidin.
D. copper.
C. avidin.
Older adults may require a supplemental source of vitamin B-12 because
A. low intake of vitamin C impairs vitamin B-12 absorption.
B. decreased production of intrinsic factor decreases vitamin B-12 absorption.
C. increased hydrochloric acid production decreases vitamin B-12 absorption.
D. high fiber intake binds vitamin B-12.
B. decreased production of intrinsic factor decreases vitamin B-12 absorption.
A suboptimal intake of chromium in individuals in the U.S. may be linked to
A. impaired glucose tolerance.
B. elevated calcitriol levels.
C. lowered serum cholesterol levels.
D. elevated blood pressure.
A. impaired glucose tolerance.
Growth retardation and poor sexual development occur with a deficiency of
A. thiamin.
B. niacin.
C. iron.
D. zinc.
D. zinc.
Anemia can result from a deficiency of
A. iron.
B. folate.
C. vitamin B-12.
D. All of these choices are correct.
D. All of these choices are correct.
We get most of the sulfur in our diet from
A. carbohydrates.
B. water.
C. fats and oils.
D. proteins.
D. proteins.
The foods that provide the largest source of riboflavin in the American diet are
A. meats.
B. whole grain cereals.
C. milk and dairy products.
D. dark green leafy vegetables.
C. milk and dairy products.
Which of the following are the best thiamin sources?
A. Pork, whole grains, enriched cereals, legumes
B. Root vegetables, cheddar-type cheese, deep yellow/orange fruits and vegetables
C. Ham, vegetables of the cabbage family, whole grains
D. Milk, beef, deep yellow/orange fruits and vegetables
A. Pork, whole grains, enriched cereals, legumes
The nutrient essential for synthesis of several blood clotting factors is
A. vitamin A.
B. vitamin C.
C. vitamin E.
D. vitamin K.
D. vitamin K.
Which of the following is the best food source of riboflavin?
A. Milk
B. Lean ham
C. Carrots
D. Canola oil
A. Milk
A severe iodide deficiency during early pregnancy may result in an infant afflicted with
A. scurvy.
B. rickets.
C. cretinism.
D. xerophthalmia.
C. cretinism.
Generally, good folate sources are
A. fruits.
B. green leafy vegetables.
C. milk and dairy products.
D. poultry.
B. green leafy vegetables.
Copper's functions consist of all the following except
A. connective tissue formation.
B. thyroid hormone synthesis.
C. iron release from storage.
D. hemoglobin formation.
B. thyroid hormone synthesis.
Some niacin is formed in the body from
A. phenylalanine.
B. tyrosine.
C. tryptophan.
D. lysine.
C. tryptophan.
The best food source of iron is
A. whole wheat bread.
B. egg yolk.
C. raisins.
D. liver.
D. liver.
Functions of choline include all of the following except
A. red blood cell synthesis.
B. neurotransmitter synthesis.
C. component of cell membranes.
D. homocysteine metabolism.
A. red blood cell synthesis.
Manganese functions as
A. a component of many different enzymes.
B. a component of thyroid hormone.
C. cofactor for the absorption of vitamin A.
D. an essential mineral for amino acid metabolism.
A. a component of many different enzymes.
The ratio of sodium to chloride in table salt is
A. 30:70
B. 40:60.
C. 50:50.
D. 60:40.
B. 40:60.
Metabolic water refers to
A. rehydration beverages that contain electrolytes.
B. water that is formed as a byproduct of the breakdown of macronutrients for energy.
C. water that is conserved by the kidneys.
D. fluids that are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
B. water that is formed as a byproduct of the breakdown of macronutrients for energy.
Which of the following electrolytes is especially important for proper heart rhythm?
A. Sodium
B. Potassium
C. Chloride
D. Phosphate
B. Potassium
Phosphorus functions include all of the following except
A. energy storage.
B. component of DNA and RNA.
C. bone structure.
D. regulation of heart rhythm.
D. regulation of heart rhythm.
Of the following, the best source of potassium is
A. fresh spinach.
B. milk.
C. white bread.
D. canned tuna.
A. fresh spinach.
A potential consequence of consuming individual mineral supplements is
A. lead consumption.
B. mineral toxicity.
C. impaired absorption of other minerals.
D. All of these choices are correct.
B. mineral toxicity.
Joe is a wrestler and during his workouts he loses 2 pounds. How much water would he have to drink to replenish this water weight loss?
A. 2 cups
B. 3 cups
C. 4 cups
D. 5 cups
C. 4 cups
Functions of choline include all of the following except
A. red blood cell synthesis.
B. neurotransmitter synthesis.
C. component of cell membranes.
D. homocysteine metabolism.
A. red blood cell synthesis.
Which of the following electrolytes is especially important for proper heart rhythm?
A. Sodium
B. Potassium
C. Chloride
D. Phosphate
B. Potassium
Phosphorus functions include all of the following except
A. energy storage.
B. component of DNA and RNA.
C. bone structure.
D. regulation of heart rhythm.
D. regulation of heart rhythm.
Of the following, the best source of potassium is
A. fresh spinach.
B. milk.
C. white bread.
D. canned tuna.
A. fresh spinach.
A potential consequence of consuming individual mineral supplements is
A. lead consumption.
B. mineral toxicity.
C. impaired absorption of other minerals.
D. All of these choices are correct.
B. mineral toxicity.
Joe is a wrestler and during his workouts he loses 2 pounds. How much water would he have to drink to replenish this water weight loss?
A. 2 cups
B. 3 cups
C. 4 cups
D. 5 cups
C. 4 cups