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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What “enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within society” according to C.W. Mills?
Sociological Imagination
During what decade did C. Wright Mills develop his theory about grasping the relationship between history and biography in society?
1950
How would you describe the practice of sociology?
the interactions of people
Which sociologist developed the theory of positivism?
Auguste Comte
Positivism is best defined as __________
Sociology is like a physical science, therefore we can use the scientific method to best solve it
According to Comte, positivism arose out of a need to make ____________ sense of the social order in a time of declining religious
authority.
moral
As a formal field, sociology is a relatively ____________ discipline.
new
Who was the author of the first methods book in the discipline of sociology?
Harriet martineau
Who are known as “the founding fathers of the sociological discipline”?
Marx, Durkheim, and Weber
As an ideology for society to follow, Marx said, “from each according to his abilities, to each _______________
a according to his need
Who criticized Marx for focusing exclusively on economics and social class as explanations for human behavior, and advocated sociological
analyses that allowed for multiple influences?
henry brossman
Who wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism?
Max Weber
The author of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism argued that sociologists should study social behavior from the perspective
of the people engaging in it. This is known as_____________
verstehen
What is the study of social meanings that emphasizes subjectivity in understanding human behavior?
psycology
According to the theory of social solidarity, the division of labor in a society helps to determine _________
social relations
According to Suicide, one of the main social forces leading to suicide is a sense of normlessness that results from drastic changes in society.
This normlessness was called __________
anomie
Who wrote Suicide in 1897?
Emile Durkheim
Which American university was the first to have a sociology department?
University of Chicago
The basic premise of the Chicago School was that human behaviors and personalities are shaped by social and physical environments. This
is known as ___________
social ecology
The Chicago School’s main laboratory for sociological research was _______
Chicago
Charles H. Cooley argued that the “self” emerges from how an individual interacts with others and then interprets those interactions. He
calls this ________________
the looking glass self
“If men define situations as real they are real in their consequences” is the theory of which Chicago School theorists?
W.I Thomas
Who was the first African American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University?
W.E.B Dubouis
Which modern sociological theories grew from Durkheim’s and others’ ideas that the best way to analyze society was to identify the roles
that different aspects or phenomena play in the overall structure of society?
functionalism
Which modern sociological theory examines how power relationships are defined, shaped, and reproduced on the basis of gender
differences?
feminism
Which modern sociological theory explains social behavior by examining the meanings that social signals and signs represent to
individuals?
social interactionism
Erving Goffman used the language of theater to describe how people present themselves in everyday social life. This is known as
______________
Dramaturgy
Postmodern sociologists argue that all so-called objective phenomena are open to debate because all meaning is subjective. Thus, to
postmodernists, all “facts” are really ____________
debatable
What do symbolic interactionists study?
language as a symbol
Which area within the discipline of anthropology is most similar to sociology?
cultural anthropology
Which of the following focuses its analyses on face-to-face encounters and interactions?
microsociology
Which of the following focuses its analyses on larger social dynamics at the societal and structural levels?
macrosociology
The social science concept that means that a change in one factor results in a direct change in another factor is known as _________
causality
The two general categories of sociological research are known as _________
qualitative and quantitative
The research method that uses statistical analyses to describe the social world is called ______________
quantitative method
If Kate approaches sociological research with a theory, then forms a hypothesis and makes empirical observations, what method is she using?
qualitative method
The ____________ approach to sociological research starts with empirical observations and then works to form a theory.
inductive
The statement “people with higher levels of income tend to enjoy better overall health” is an example of the association known in social
research as _________
correlation
What is needed to establish causality?
two variables have to be connected (empirical association), independent has to come before dependent, elimination of alternative explanation
In social research, a false relationship or alternative explanation is known as ______-
Spurious Relation
Akila believes that the outcome of her research is affected by events or changes in the real world. This type of experiment is known as
______________
a natural experiment
Martine is a sociologist who thinks that A is causing B, when in fact, B is causing A. She needs to be careful to not make the mistake
known as _____________
reverse causality
The variable or outcome that a sociologist explains is known as the ________
dependent
The measured factors that a sociologist believes have a causal impact on another variable are known as the ____________
independent
A proposed relationship between two variables that a sociologist studies is known as a(n) ____________
hypothesis
When hypothesis testing, a researcher needs to be very specific when defining concepts and variables. This is known as _______________
operationalization
____________ means that a researcher is successful in measuring what he or she intends to measure.
validity
The likelihood that a researcher will obtain the same result using the same measures the next time she or he tests a hypothesis is
____________
reliability
The extent to which a researcher can claim that his or her findings explain a larger population than was studied is known as
_______________
generalizability
Charles is a sociologist studying a population of gay fathers in the United States. He interviews 200 men in his data collection. These 200
men comprise what researchers call a ______________
sample
The subset of a population from which a researcher collects data is known as a ____________
sample
If a researcher collects data from an entire population, this is called _______
cenus
If a sociologist studies one high school in a study of the effectiveness of its Parent-Teacher Association, he or she is using which research
method?
panel survey
A researcher must be aware of how he or she affects the events being studied. This is known as _______
“white coat” effects/ reflexivity
Mitchell Duneier’s study of homeless men on New York City’s Sixth Avenue involved hanging out with his research subjects to collect
data. This type of methodology is known as _____________
field research
An ordered series of questions intended to elicit information from research respondents is known as _____________
survey
Lance is a sociologist who has mailed 10,000 surveys to possible respondents in a population he is studying. He hopes to get responses
from, and have a sample of, at least 5,000. This is known as ___________
response rate
The main reason that achieving high response rates and limiting selection bias are so important is that they lead to _______________
accurate results that can be generalized
The General Social Survey (GSS) is replicated yearly with a new sample of 2,000 respondents. This is an example of
___________________
cross-sectional survey
A type of longitudinal study in which the same sample of respondents is tracked over a long period of time is known as __________
longitutdal survey (panel survey)
Researchers studying social movements often use methods, which involves collecting data from written reports and other artifacts that date
to a specific time period. This method is called _______________
secondary analysis
The notion that our culture, lacking a history of feudalism, was uniquely individualistic and nonpaternalistic is known as
________________
american acceptionalism
Rogers Brubaker (1992) studied the notions of citizen and statehood in both France and Germany. His method of research is known as
_______________
comparative research
Perhaps the most difficult method to apply to the social sciences, as compared with laboratory-based natural sciences, is/are ____________
experimental research
LeeAnn is a graduate student in sociology who is studying media depictions of gun violence in popular films such as Rambo and Scarface.
Her choice of methods is known as ______________
research using secondary analysis
In content analysis research, _____________ refers to what we can measure easily and is obvious
manifest content
In content analysis research ______________ refers to observations that are implied, but not easily observed.
latent content
What are described as golden rules of ethical conduct in social research? 72. Research subjects have a right to know that they
are participating in a study and what the study consists of. This is known as ____________-
do no harm, informed consent, voluntary participants, confidentiality
A sociologist studying minor children, pregnant women, or inmates must get approval, as these groups are known as ____________
protected population
A sociologist studying minor children, pregnant women, or inmates must get approval, as these groups are known as ____________
protected populations
Social research aimed to influence public policy and society as a whole is referred to as __________________
ideology
A set of beliefs, traditions, and practices that is the total of the social categories and concepts that people embrace is one definition of
__________
culture
One of the two main categories of culture that includes values, beliefs, norms, and behaviors is known as ______________
non-material culture
Everything in our constructed environment, including technology, buildings, furniture, clothing, and books, is part of _________
material culture
Slang terms such as LOL, ROFL, and BRB are examples of _______
low culture
A type of nonmaterial culture known as ____________ is a system of concepts and relationships sometimes used to understand cause and
effect.
ideology
It is important to take into account differences across cultures without making value judgments. This is known as _________________
cultural relativism
Baseball in the United States and cockfighting in Bali are examples of __________
high culture
While they are difficult to define, ____________ are smaller subgroups within a larger dominant society that share some of the dominant
cultural values, but also have some of their own, unique material and nonmaterial or symbolic culture
subcultures
The various musical genres and the groups inspired by them, such as heavy metal music and the goths, are examples of ______________
subculture
The experience of learning a culture’s norms, values, and so on is known as ____________
socialization
The theory that states that culture is a projection of the social structures and relationships into the public sphere is known as
______________
reflection theory
One way to define ____________ is as any formats or vehicles that carry, present, or communicate information, such as books,
newspapers, and television.
media
Gramsci’s concept for the historical process in which a dominant group exercises moral and intellectual leadership by voluntarily receiving
the approval and consent of the masses is known as ___________
hegemony
Gramsci’s concept for getting people to do what you want them to do by force and sometimes violence is known as ___________
dominance
Similar to sociologists’ research, Herbert Gans (1979) studied television news outlets’ decisions on what to include (or not to include) in
the news. What did he find?
racism in media
Jean Kilbourne’s college lectures and film, Killing Us Softly (2010), examine which issue?
sexism in media
In the United States, six major companies, including Disney and Time-Warner, own what percentage of the media?
90%
The belief that happiness and fulfillment can be achieved through the acquisition of material possessions is known as _________________
consummerism
The act of turning media against itself, such as the actions of Rockin’ Rollen and Adbusters, is called ____________
culture jamming
The lifelong process by which people learn and internalize the values, beliefs, and norms required to become a functioning member of a
society is known as:
psycological development or socialization
The Turing Test is a popular test in which area of research?
socialization
The primary units of socialization for babies are ___________
family
Cooley’s theory of socialization states that the self develops from our interactions with others and their reactions to us. This theory is
known as ___________
looking glass self
Concepts such as I, me, and generalized other are part of which theorist’s work?
charles cooley
Which theory uses game playing to understand the development of self?
Meads role playing theory
Which theorist extends his theory of socialization to span an entire lifetime, rather than just limiting it to explanations of childhood or
adolescence?
erickson
The four main categories of agents of socialization are ____________
families, schools, mass media, institutions
A drastic type of adult socialization that may occur when adults change environments is known as ____________
resocialization
Terms such as status, roles, and role conflicts are part of role theory, which is the work of which theorist?
R. Merton
A recognizable social position that an individual occupies, such as “student” or “professor,” is known as a ___________
achieved status
The expectations and duties that come attached to a particular status are known as ________________
role
A single mother who is experiencing incompatibility within her role, such as dealing with sleep deprivation and spending quality time with
her children, may be experiencing ________________
role strain
Most college students occupy many statuses at one time: student, employee, citizen, son or daughter, and so on. This list of statuses is
known as __________
status set
Involuntary statuses that we are born into are called ____________
ascribed status
Voluntary statuses that we become over time are called ___________
achieved status
The expectations that Barbie dolls are for girls and G.I. Joe dolls are for boys are examples of _________
gender roles
Which theory contains concepts such as front stage and backstage, and has its roots in the work of William Shakespeare?
dramaturgical theory
According to Goffman, we all try to make good impressions on others and we actively work to ensure that others believe that they are
doing the same. He calls this ____
impression management
Garfinkel’s method for critically acting upon and studying social interactions is called _____________
ethnomethodology