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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
way of life, the shared LEARNED behaviors of a group of people
culture
literature, music, art, and other physical objects
material culture
ideas, values, beliefs, religion, rules, philosophies, superstitions

(shared among groups)
non-material culture
withoout it NO MEANS TO COMMUNICATE and share the material and non-material aspects of culture
language
symbolic, knowledge/"how to", learned, shared, norms
characteristics of culture
objects or activities which stand for something else
symbols
"how to"
knowledge
transmitted through social interaction
learned
transmission of culture from one generation to another
acculturation
patterns of behavior and symbols
shared
expectations for behavior, shared rules on how people should act; NOT ACTUAL BEHAVIOR
norms
learned behaviors that are widely accepted and required by a particular society
cultural universals
choices of mechanisms in meeting personal and social needs
cultural alternatives
elements of culture that are shared by people of certain social categories but not the entire population
cultural specialties
culture that is wholly contained within a larger culture (adhere to the values and practices of larger culture)
subculture
subculture that is characterized by a lifestyle that is not only different but in CONFLICT with the dominant culture
counterculture
the attitude of superiority regarding one's own culture or subculture (ex: KKK)
ethnocentrism
amazement faced by an individual when they encounter different cultural practices and beliefs; leads to ethnocentrism
culture shock
doctrine that in order to evaluate cultures meaningfully, we need to step in their shoes; overcomes ethnocentrism
cultural relativism
when material and non-material culture change at different rates
cultural lag
the concern that people have for maintaining the status quo because it favors them
vested interests
shared assumptions about what is good or bad, right or wrong, important or unimportant
values
customary and traditional expectations for members of a society
folkways
system ideas that justify social, moral, religious, political, or economic interests; change in values are spread through social movements
values and beliefs
six factors that promote social change
values and beliefs, technology, population, diffusion, physical environment, wars and conquest
the knowledge and tools that people use to manipulate thier environment
technology
change in size may bring about changes to culture; the amount of people occupying a space
population
process of spreading culture traits from one society to another
diffusion
people rely on foods they grow, the intro of new foods and natural disasters = social and cultural change
physical environment
war causes the loss of many lives; causes changes in economy; greatest change in least amount of time
wars and conquests
TOOL or ACTION or BELIEF
trait
cluster of TOOLS + ACTIONS + BELIEFS
complex
culture + institution
pattern
exists when people follow norms through internal or external means
social control
internalization
following particular norms become part of a person's personality