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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
"Life on Earth is Solar Powered" - explain
All organisms are autotrophs or eat autotrophs
Where is the action in plant?
chloroplasts (filled with thykaloids)
Explain the "lenses" in the epidermis?
There are epidermal cells that act as lenses to focus light on the chloroplasts. chloroplasts surround the area where the light is most intense.
6CO2 + 12H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
~respiration backwards
where does the oxygen come from?
the water!
Explain the cycle?
ATP and NADPH from the light cycle enter the Calvin Cycle. ADP and NADP from calvin are transferred back to the light cycle to pick up H+
~light and dark reactions are paired together
what color of light drived photosynthesis?
red and purple
explain the structure of chlorophyll
the porphyrin ring is the light absorbing head of the molecule (looks like hemoglobin). the hydrocarbon tail anchors chlorophyll in the thykaloid membrane
how a photosystem harvest light...noncylic e- flow
*electron is produced by slitting of water - this is where O2 comes from*
light hits and excited an electron on photosystem II that flows to a primary electron acceptor. electron then flows down an e-transport chain. chemiosmosis produces ATP. light hits photosystem I and excited e- which flows down chain and converts NADP+ to NADPH.
Cyclis Electron Flow
electron goes around and around but always returns to Photosystem I. produce ATP by chemiosmosis.
what connects photophosphoylation and the calvin cycle?
ATP and NADPH from photophosphorylation enters the Calvin Cycle. photophosphorylation are the LIGHT REACTIONS.
Calvin Cycle - Phase 1
Phase 1: Carbon Fixation - produce 3PG. triggered by rubisco (most common enzyme)
Calvin Cycle - Phase 2
Phase 2: Reduction
production of G3P, a sugar.
Calvin Cycle - Phase 3
Phase 3: Regeneration of RuBP
-need the cyclic electron flow to provide ATP for this pahse
What is the most important enzyme on earth?
Rubisco!...provides the carbons that all hetertrophs eat. this molecule can fix CO2 but also can react with O2 in photorespiration.
rubisco catalyzes a reaction between O2 and RuBP in addition to the rxn between CO2 and RuBP. Reduces photosynthesis by up to 50%
-problem on hot, dry days
-uses ATP
~on hot, dry days plants close stomates so CO2 level drops and rubisco seeks out O2.
C4 Plants - one solution to photorespiration
C4 plants fix CO2 into a 4-carbon acid which diffuses into bundle sheath cells. the decaroxylation produces locally high [CO2]
-Calvin Cycle is isolated from rest of leaf
CAM Plants - another solution to photorespiration
open stomates at night and collect CO2. Fix CO2 into C4 compound. stomates close during day and artificially keep [CO2] high
How are photosynthesis and respiration related???
the Calvin-Benson cycle, the citric acid cycle, and glycolysis
Where did mitochondria and chloroplasts come from? (Both involved in chemiosmosis, 2 membranes, and similar organelles)
endosymbiosis - were formerly prokaryotic cells living within larger cells. engulfed by eukaryotes