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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
watching gate is extremely important for which model?
biomechanical
unlevel sacral base requires ... compensation
vertebral
what acts as a divider and moderator of structures above and below?
diaphragms
diaphragm can have affects on changes in ... and ... flow
circulatory
lymphatic
palmar and plantar fascia act as ...
diaphragms
what is not uncommon and causes global, physical, cognitive, and spiritual reactions?
chronic pain
increasing vitamin D3 levels has been shown to help relieve ...
chronic pain
what kind of illness behavior is this?
-preoccupation with imagined defect of the body
somatoform disorders
what are these?
-biomechanical
-respiratory circulatory
-neurological
-nutritional
-energy expenditure and exchange
-behavioral - social
the 6 models of osteopathic treatment
a technique is characterized as ... if it takes the body towards the restrictive barrier
direct
a technique is characterized as ... if it takes the body away from the restrictive barrier toward the position of ease
indirect
... technique is a direct technique that usually involves lateral stretching, linear stretching, deep pressure, traction and/or separation of proximal and distal muscle ends while monitoring tissue response and muscle changes by palpation
soft tissue
what are the 3 basic mechanisms used in applying soft tissue technique?
-traditional (stretching)
-kneading
-inhibition
inhibition is sustained deep pressure over a ... myofascial structure
hypertonic
soft tissue treatments produce generalized "..." effect on patients
-enhanced general physical tone and level of well-being
tonic
... and absence of ... are absolute contraindications to soft tissue techniques
patient refusal
somatic dysfunction
what are these?
-maintaining fluid balance in the body
-purification and cleansing of tissues
-defense
-nutrition
functions of the lymphatic system
what are these?
-spleen, tonsils, thymus, lymph nodes, etc.
-functions include production of immunologic cells and antibodies, clearing of waste from fighting infections, and filtering toxins
organized lymph tissue
... perfuse most of the tissues of the body

capillaries flow into larger channels which eventually drain into the venous system via the ... duct or the ... duct
lymph channels

right lymphatic
thoracic
what is the substance that leaks out of the arterial capillaries, into the interstitium and into the single-cell lymphatic vessels?
lymph
primary cells of lymph are ...
lymphocytes
lymph flows through lymph channels are influenced by what 3 factors?
-interstitial fluid pressure
-ionic gradients
-intrinsic lymphatic pupm
excessive interstitial fluid increases interstitial pressure and collapses lymph capillaries resulting in ... and ...
edema
congestion
edema also causes dilation of lymph ... causing the valves not to function and the intrinsic pump to shut down
capillaries
OMT may exert its greatest influence on the ...
lymphatic system
direct external pressure on the lymph channel (increases or decreases) the flow of lymph
increases
the ... is an important external pump of the lymphatic system
diaphragm
fascial torsions (twists) can directly (increase or decrease) lymphatic flow through the fascia?
decrease
rib raising reduces constriction of larger lymph vessels, while reducing ...
sympathetic tone
in which lymphatic pump technique do to lift the inferior border of the pectoralis muscles while the patient breathes?
pectoral traction
what are 2 absolute contraindications to lymphatic techniques?
-anuresis if not on dialysis (if kidneys have shut down)
-necrotizing fasciitis in area involved (localized infection)
Fred L. Mitchell defined muscle energy treatment as a form of osteopathic treatment in which the patient ... moves the body specifically directed by the physician from a precisely controlled ..., in a specific ..., and against a distinctly executed ...
voluntarily
position
direction
counterforce
muscle contraction requires both a ... (blood flow) and ... (neural stimulus) reaction
chemical
electrical
ischemia is the lack of ...
O2
anemia is the lack of ...
blood cells
when i hear the word nociceptive, think of ...
pain
altered blood flow therefore triggers a ... response signaling that a problem exists within the tissues and that there is a state of low-energy formation in the muscles
neural
sufficient blood flow must be maintained in order to regenerate the ... necessary to break the actin-myosin ... so that muscle fiber movement may be continued
ATP
cross-links
reduced ... will alter the metabolic support necessary for normal muscle movement
blood flow
"the rule of the ... is supreme"
-ATStill
artery
in its resting (dead-without ATP) state, muscle fibers are ... and ...
linked
contracted
the nerve terminal of muscle spindles is known as the .... ending
annulospiral
muscle spindles are responsible for the ... of the muscles
tone
the function of the muscle spindle is to provide ... feedback for the movement, position and extension of muscles
proprioceptive
during ... of the muscle, the muscle spindle becomes progressively silenced and the golgi tendon organ increases its firing rate
active contraction
during ... of the muscle, the muscle spindle increases its firing rate and the golgi tendon organ becomes slightly increased
stretch
what are receptors located within the laced network of collagen tissue fibers at the musculotendinous junctions of the muscles?
golgi tendon organs
when the golgi tendon is stimulated, this ... motor firing to this muscle and ... muscle firing to its antagonist muscle group
inhibits
stimulates
Joint capsule mechanoreceptors are normally more sensitive at the extremes of joint angle movement, in the presence of ... within the joint, and in the presence of increased fluid pressures
inflammation
... are a component of the fusimotor system, the system by which the CNS controls muscle spindle sensitivity
gamma motoneurons
... regions in the muscle also have reduced gamma and alpha input
injured
what type of muscle fibers?
-smaller
-more mitochondria and blood capillaries
-more content of myoglobin in the sarcoplasm (carries additional available oxygen for use by the mito)
-red coloration
-function: postoral
-color: red
-metabolism: oxidative
-fatigability: slow
-spindle number: high
-reaction: shortening
slow twitch muscle fibers
what type of muscle fibers?
-metabolically and functionally designed for more ballistic activity such as power movements performed over a short duration of time
-function: phasic
-color: white
-metabolism: glycolytic
-fatigability: rapid
-spindle number: moderate
-reaction: weakening
fast twitch fibers
muscle contraction (is or is not) an all or none action?
is not
what is this?
-increase in the diameter of the muscle fibers along with increased sarcoplasm and metabolic supportive matrix. This is formed by the forceful activation of the muscle fibers against at least 75% of its maximal tension
hypertrophy
what is this called?
-decrease in diameter of the muscle fibers with reduced strength, fiber size, and metabolic support
atrophy
what is the most significant contributor to atrophy?
denervation
what is this?
-change in the tension (tautness) of a muscle without approximation of muscle origin and insertion
-the operator force equals the patient force
-this apparently resets the muscle proprioceptors as the tight muscle lengthens
isometric contraction
isometric contraction
-patient's activation of the restricted muscle against the physician's counterforce is known as ...
-patient's activation of the antagonist muscle to the restricted muscle against the physician's counterforce is known as ...
-post-isometric relaxation
-reciprocal inhibition
isotonic contraction:
-...: contraction of muscle resulting in approximation of origin and insertion (getting closer)
-...: lengthening of the muscle during contraction (getting farther away, pull and stretch)
-these methods are commonly used to build muscle strength
concentric
eccentric
what is this?
-contraction of a muscle against resistance while an external force lengthens the muscle.
-this method is thought to work through activation of the golgi receptor reflexes and is used to tear down adhesions in the tissues. this has the potential to cause injury in the tissues and is not commonly used
isolytic contraction
what is this?
-constant velocity during either concentric or eccentric contraction of a muscle group
-used to build muscle strength while also controlling the movement
isokinetic (isotonic) contraction
what is the end result of the mechanisms previously outlined, that protection of the injured muscle group requires extra effort from other muscle fibers and groups of muscles to compensate for the injured muscle fibers or altered joint mechanics?
re-orchestration of muscle efforts