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70 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what are the 3 layers (tunics) of the eye?
-fibrous (external) tunic
-vascular (middle) tunic or uvea
-nervous tunic (retina)
what is this?
-whites of eyes
-made up of connective tissue
sclera
light comes through what first?
-bends light
-clear part in front of the eye
cornea
what is the junction between the cornea and the sclera?
limbus
what is the tissue that attaches to the limbus of the eyes?
conjunctiva
what are the 2 parts of the conjunctiva?
bulbar
palpebral
what is this?
-consists of a vascularized dense regularly arranged connective tissue (collagenous fibers and fibroblasts). It maintains the size and form of the eye
-extraocular skeletal muscles attach into this.
-the optic nerve passes through this at the rear of the eyeball
sclera
the anterior compartment of the eyeball contains what kind of liquid?
aqueous humor
which compartment contains vitreal body (humor)
posterior compartment
what is this?
-located at the front of the eye, is continuous at the limbus with the sclera. It has several layers and is transparent
-most refraction occurs here; it is avascular
cornea
layers of the cornea:
-... - a stratified squamous, nonkeratinized epithelium
-... - a basement membrane feltwork of irregular fine fibrils of collagen
-... - constitutes the bulk of the cornea, consists of many orthogonal laminae of highly ordered, uniform collagen fibrils with fibroblasts between the laminae.
-... - an acellular, homogenous basement membrane, made of an atypical form of collagen
-... - forms posterior surface of cornea a single layer of squamous to cuboidal cells
anterior (corneal) epithelium
Bowman's membrane
stroma
Descemet's membrane
corneal endothelium (mesenchymal epithelium)
what is this?
-corresponds to the junction between transparent cornea and opaque sclera
-contains trabecular spaces (spaces of fontana), schlemm's canal (both involved in resorption of aqueous humor), and blood vessels
Limbus (corneoscleral junction)
what does the optic nerve go through to reach the retina?
lamina cribosa
what is pigmented and in places highly vascular?
-consists of choroid, ciliary body and iris
vascular tunic (uvea)
Innermost portion of choroid contains numerous capillaries (choriocapillary layer), which provides nutritional exchange for outermost layers of the retina through ... (basal lamina)
Bruch's membrane
what is this?
-intermediate portion of uvea
-continuation of choroid
ciliary body
the ciliary body contains the ciliary muscle (... muscle) which is used to change the shape of the lens by way of the ciliary zonule fibers
smooth
what is this?
-anterior portion of uvea
-it is a diaphragm which controls amount of light entering eye
iris
the iris contains the ... and ... muscles in its stroma which control pupillary size
sphincter pupillae
dilator pupillae
the ... of the iris also contains pigmented cells, melanocytes
stroma
both ciliary processes and the inner surfaces of the iris are covered by a pigmented layer and are continuation of the ...
retina
what is this?
-transparent, flexible, biconvex disc which functions in near and distant vision. Changes of its curvature (shape), due to the action of the zonule fibers and ciliary muscles, changes the focal point on the retina
lens
what is this?
-layer of connective tissue
-homogeneous carbohydrate-rich capsule composed of type 4 collagen fibers enclosing entire lens
-ciliary zonule fibers attach to it
lens capsule
what is this?
-simple cuboidal cells covering anterior surface of lens
anterior (subcapsular) epithelium
lens substance is composed of laminated interdigitating elongated cells called ...
lens fibers
what is this called?
-changes in lens as you go from seeing far to close and vice versa.
-convergence of eyes
-curvature of lens increased
-pupil constricts
accommodation
for far vision, ... muscles contract
dilator
what is this?
-located in anterior and posterior chambers of the eye
-contains practically no proteins, and is produced by the cells on the ciliary processes
aqueous humor
what does this lead to?
-overproduction of aqueous humor
-blockage of drainage
glaucoma
what is this?
-fills the space (vitreous cavity) between lens and retina
-this gel is 99% water and also contains collagen fibers and glycosaminoglycans (mainly hyaluronic acid)
vitreous body
what is this?
-the innermost coat of the posterior part of the eye.
-contains photoreceptors (rods and cones)
-has several layers
nervous tunic (retina)
what is this?
-specialized area where vision is most acute
-where photoreceptors are essentially bare (i.e. the overlying layers are pushed to the side)
-contains only cones
fovea centralis (macula)
what is the spot where the optic nerve leaves the eye and there are no photoreceptors?
-"blind spot"
optic papilla
the 8 cellular layers of retina (from outermost to innermost)
-pigmented epithelium
-layer of rods and cones: photoreceptors
-outer nuclear layer
-outer plexiform layer
-inner nuclear layer
-inner plexiform layer
-ganglion cell layer
-optic nerve fiber layer
what is this?
-outermost layer
-prevents diffusion of light between photoreceptors
-makes contact with Bruch's membrane of the choroid
pigment epithelium
what layer contains nuclei belonging to rods and cones?
outer nuclear layer
what is the layer where rods and cones synapse with bipolar cells
outer plexiform layer
what layer contains nuclei belonging to bipolar cells?
inner nuclear layer
what layer do bipolar cells synapse with ganglion cells?
inner plexiform layer
which layer contains nuclei of ganglion cells?
ganglion cell layer
which layer is this?
-consists of the central processes (axons) of the ganglion cells which gather together at the optic papilla, pass through the sclera and leave the eye as the optic nerve
optic nerve fiber layer
as they leave the rear of the eyeball, the optic nerve fibers become myelinated by the action of ...
oligodendrocytes
what kind of cells make interconnections with rods and cones?
horizontal cells
what kind of cells make interconnections with ganglion cells?
amacrine cells
what kind of cells are supportive neuroglial cells?
Muller cells
which cell's signals are integrated?
bipolar cells
which cell sends its axon out to the surface of the retina?
ganglion cells
which cells are glial-like cells that supports the functioning of the retina?
muller cells
which 3 cells are considered to be in the main group?
photo-receptors
bipolar neurons
ganglion cells
which 3 cells are considered to be in the accessory group?
horizontal cells
amacrine cells
Muller cells
pathway of nerve impulse through the layers: (10)
-pigmented epithelium
-layers of rods and cones
-external limiting membrane
-external nuclear layer
-external plexiform layer
-internal nuclear layer
-internal plexiform layer
-ganglion cell layer
-layer of nerve fibers
-internal limiting membrane
what are these?
-eyelids
-conjunctiva
-lacrimal gland
accessory structures of the eye
what is this?
-mucous membrane which covers the inner surface of eyelid and part of sclera.
-it is continuous with the anterior corneal epithelium at the limbus
conjunctiva
what is this?
-located in superior lateral region of the orbit
-produces tears which acts to lubricate the conjunctival surface of the eyeball and eyelid
-a serous gland made up of a collection of compund tubuloalveolar glands
-has several excretory ducts which open laterally into the fornix of the eye
lacrimal gland
tears are drained medially from the eye surface into the nasal cavity at the lacrimal .., via lacrimal ..., the lacrimal ... and the nasolacrimal duct
puncta
canaliculi
sac
the eye arises from the ... around the 22nd - 28th day, and induces special structures that develop out of ectoderm and mesoderm.
diencephalon
the initial structure of the eye is called the ...

as it develops, this interacts with ectoderm and mesoderm to form the structure that we ultimately see as the eye
optic vesicle
at the optic vesicle stage, day 28, it is providing inductive signals to the ...
ectoderm
at 30 days, ectoderm forms ...
lens vesicle
lens vesicle induces invagination of optic vesicle to become ... at 32 days
optic cup
these are derivatives of what?
-sclera
-choroid layer
-ciliary body
-muscles of iris
mesoderm
what 2 things are derived from ectoderm?
lens
cornea
what are these?
-pigment epithelium
-neural retina
-pigmented portion of iris
-optic nerve
neural derivatives of eye
vitreous humor and aqueous humor spaces were formerly ...: cells left to create acellular space
mesodermal
the optic cup (is/is not) a complete cup
is not
day 32:
the eye leaves a slit on its inferior portion, called the ..., that allows the central artery of the retina to grow into it
choroid fissure
as the ... grows, the choroid fissure closes along the midline, eventually obliterating any trace that it once existed, and leaving a smooth, round eye
optic cup
closure of fissure occurs at the # week
6th
what is this called?
-failure of fusion of the choroid fissure creates a slit under the eye
-the slit does not usually involve sclera; the 'white' is generally intact
-this slit may only involve iris, or may include inferior part of retina
coloboma
what are these?
-congenital glaucoma
-congenital cataracts
-micropthalamia and anopthalamia
-congenitally detached or absent lens
-cyclopia (synophthalmia)
other develpmental abnormalities