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34 Cards in this Set

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what transforms the chemical energy of the metabolites present in cytoplasm into energy that is easily accessible to the cell?
mitochondria
the mitochondria are the most important sites of ... production in cells.
ATP
mitochondria provides energy to cells through ...
oxidative phosphorylation
Mitochondria are believed to have evolved in human cells as symbiotic prokaryotic organisms similar to ...
bacteria
In support of this hypothesis, each mitochondria has its own ... and systems for ... independent of the cell nucleus.
DNA
protein synthesis
Mitochondria
-inner membrane thrown into folds called ...
-cytoplasm internal to the folds is called the ...
-the space between the inner and outer membrane is called the ...
cristae
matrix
intermembranous space
The outer membrane contains specialized transport proteins such as ..., which allow free permeability to molecules up to about 10 kDa molecular weight from the cytosol into the intermembranous space
porin
The inner membrane is highly impermeable/selectively permeable to small ions owing to a high content of the phospholipid ..., which permits the development of electrochemical gradients during the production of high-energy cell metabolites
cardiolipin
In certain regions, the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes contact each other. at these points, they act as ... for proteins and small molecules to enter and leave the intermembranous space or the matrix
pathways
cytoplasmic proteins are made on ... ribosomes
free
what chaparons deliver the polypeptide to the mitochondria?
heat shock proteins
Tom stands for...
Tim stands for...
transport outer membrane
transport inner membrane
The contact sites are composed of carrier proteins for the transport of proteins into the intermembranous space and matrix, provided that the proteins bear markers ... for entry into those compartments
specific
what structure of the mitochondria contains enzymes of oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport systems, as well as ATP synthetase?
-it's involved in transporting protons across, which results in the production of ATP
cristae
The number of cristae possessed by a mitochondrion is related directly to the ... of the cell.
-indicates how active they are
energy requirement
which has more cristae?
cardiac muscle cell mitochondrion or an osteocyte mitochondrion?
cardiac muscle cell mitochondrion
Matrix:
-contains ... of citric acid cycle and krebs cycle
-various ... are stored here (example - ...)
-contains mitochondrial ... and ..., and dense spherical matrix granules composed of phospholipoprotein
enzymes
ions, calcium
DNA and RNAs
The double-stranded mitochondrial circular (cDNA) is called ...
Mt DNA
Mt DNA contains information for the formation of # mitochondrial proteins, 16S and 12S rRNA, and genes for 22 tRNAs.
13
most of the codes necessary for the formation and functioning of mitochondria are located in the genome of the ...
nucleus
morphology of mitochondria varies with ...
cell type
mitochondria in cells with high oxidative metabolism are commonly ... and ...
large and plentiful
in steroid hormone-secreting cells such as those of the adrenal cortex, the cristae are ... structures rather than flat plates
tubular
mitochondria are ...-replicating and have an average life span of about # days
self
10
if you have a disease that affects 3 systems, it might be a ... problem
mitochondrial
weakness or inability to do exercise, weakness of muscles, and neuropathy problems are signs of ... disorders
mitochondrial
Mitochondrial Cytopathy syndromes have characteristic ... present, and are thought to be composed of excess mitochondrial protein which accumulates as a result of the genetic abnormality.
-they are loaded with cristae because it's trying to compensate.
paracrystalline inclusions (PCI)
enzymes associated with lipid synthesis and fatty acid metabolism are located in the ... of the mitochondria
outer membrane
enzymes associated with the respiratory chain and ATP production are located in the ... of the mitochondria
inner membrane
enzymes associated with the TCA cycle are located within the ... of the mitochondria
matrix
enzymes that are associated with nucleotide phosphorylation (ADP-->ATP) are located in the ... of the mitochondria
intermembranous space
The inner membrane is highly impermeable to small ions owing to a high content of ...
cardiolipin
where is mitochondrial DNA contained?
matrix
mitochondrial DNA contains information for the formation of # proteins
13