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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what equation is this?

pH = pKa + log [A-]/[HA]
henderson - hosselbach equation
endergonic = ...
nonspontaneous
1st law of thermodynamics:
The internal energy or chemical bond energy, in the form of heat can be defined as the ... for the chemical reaction
enthalpy
delta H = delta E
2nd law of thermodynamics:
-all systems tend toward equilibrium.

at equilibrium, there is no ...
free energy
normally, a decrease in enthalpy (-delta H) would produce heat and would be spontaneous. The exception is with ... turning to ...
Heat is absorbed but it's still spontaneous due to an increase in total ...
ice
water
entropy (delta S)
3rd law of thermodynamics:
The ... content of a system can only be zero at 0 degrees K.
entropy
what are the driving forces for a reaction and which laws of thermodynamics include them?
enthalpy and entropy
1st and 3rd law
(-) delta H and (+) delta S

reaction is ...
spontaneous at all temperatures
(-) delta H and (-) delta S

reaction is ...
spontaneous only at temperatures below T = delta H/delta S
(+) delta H and (+) delta S

reaction is ...
spontaneous only at temperatures above T = delta H/delta S
(+) delta H and (-) delta S

reaction is ...
nonspontaneous at all temperatures
standard state (STP):

temp-
mole-
pH-
25 degrees celcius
1 mole in substrate and products
ph = 7
displacement from equilibrium is called the ..., which requires energy in the form of ATP
steady state
what is the ratio of products and reactants (substrates) for a chemical reaction in the steady-state called?
Mass Action Ratio (MAR)
if delta G is positive, then the reaction is thermodynamically (favorable or unfavorable)?
unfavorable
(+) delta E is (favorable or unfavorable)?
favorable
what is the ability to accept (affinity for) electrons?
reduction potential
to donate electrons is to be ...
oxidized
to accept electrons is to be ...
reduced
what is the ultimate acceptor of electrons (most positive Eo)?
Oxygen
for any reduction half-reaction, the more negative the Eo value, the greater the potential to ... electrons.

A more positive Eo value indicates a higher potential to ... electrons
donate
accept