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### 21 Cards in this Set

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 what equation is this? pH = pKa + log [A-]/[HA] henderson - hosselbach equation endergonic = ... nonspontaneous 1st law of thermodynamics: The internal energy or chemical bond energy, in the form of heat can be defined as the ... for the chemical reaction enthalpy delta H = delta E 2nd law of thermodynamics: -all systems tend toward equilibrium. at equilibrium, there is no ... free energy normally, a decrease in enthalpy (-delta H) would produce heat and would be spontaneous. The exception is with ... turning to ... Heat is absorbed but it's still spontaneous due to an increase in total ... ice water entropy (delta S) 3rd law of thermodynamics: The ... content of a system can only be zero at 0 degrees K. entropy what are the driving forces for a reaction and which laws of thermodynamics include them? enthalpy and entropy 1st and 3rd law (-) delta H and (+) delta S reaction is ... spontaneous at all temperatures (-) delta H and (-) delta S reaction is ... spontaneous only at temperatures below T = delta H/delta S (+) delta H and (+) delta S reaction is ... spontaneous only at temperatures above T = delta H/delta S (+) delta H and (-) delta S reaction is ... nonspontaneous at all temperatures standard state (STP): temp- mole- pH- 25 degrees celcius 1 mole in substrate and products ph = 7 displacement from equilibrium is called the ..., which requires energy in the form of ATP steady state what is the ratio of products and reactants (substrates) for a chemical reaction in the steady-state called? Mass Action Ratio (MAR) if delta G is positive, then the reaction is thermodynamically (favorable or unfavorable)? unfavorable (+) delta E is (favorable or unfavorable)? favorable what is the ability to accept (affinity for) electrons? reduction potential to donate electrons is to be ... oxidized to accept electrons is to be ... reduced what is the ultimate acceptor of electrons (most positive Eo)? Oxygen for any reduction half-reaction, the more negative the Eo value, the greater the potential to ... electrons. A more positive Eo value indicates a higher potential to ... electrons donate accept