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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are ...
energy rich nutrients
the "breaking down of" is known as ...
catabolism
CO2, H2O, and NH3 are ...
energy poor end products
nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides are ...
cell macromolecules
sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides are...
building blocks
what molecule is used for reductive biosynthesis? (gluing things together)
NADPH
what molecule is a reducing equivalent and is associated with electrons?
NADH
NADH is

-generated in the ... cycle (also known as ... cycle) and is used in the ... (also known as oxidative phosphorylation) to make ...
TCA
Krebs cycle
Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
ATP
NADPH:
-... aka ...
-reductive biosynthesis
-drug detoxification
Hexose MonoPhosphate Shunt
Pentose-phosphate Pathway
when a high energy phosphate bond is cleaved, it releases about # kcal of energy
7
an energy fed state has (little or lots) of energy around
lots
energy starved state has (little or lots) of energy around but (little or lots) of AMP
little
lots
breakdown of large macromolecules to simple subunits (fat metabolism) happens in the ...
gut
what molecule is central to all metabolism?
pyruvate
krebs cycle, aka ... aka ...
citric acid cycle
TCA cycle
what aids in the uptake of glucose and is dependent on insulin?
glucose transporters
glucose transporter number 2 is located where?
the liver
which have a higher affinity for glucose?

adipose tissues, liver cells, muscle
muscle and adipose have higher affinity than liver
what is the blood fasting glucose concentration per deciliter?

it is critical to maintain blood glucose concentration here.
80-90 mg
In the pathways of integrating metabolism, you start in the ... and end up in the ...

The end point is either ... or ... in the form of energy (alternative energy sources)
bloodstream
tissue

energy
storage
3 stages of catabolism:
1) breakdown of large macromolecules to ...

2)breakdown of product from above to ... accompanied by production of limited amounts of ... and ...

3) complete oxidation of acetyl CoA to ... and ... accompanied by production of large amounts of ... and ...
-simple subunits

-acetyl CoA
-ATP and NADH

-H20 and CO2
NADH and ATP
insulin world = ... world
dephosphorylating
(all the enzymes are dephosphorylated)
glucagon world = ... world
phosphorylating world
glucose to pyruvate is known as the ... pathway and generates ...
glycolytic (glycolysis)
ATP
in the red blood cell, is aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis going on?
anaerobic glycolysis
in the red blood cell, there are no ...
organelles (mitochondria)
the purpose of the red blood cell is to transport ...
oxygen
what is this?
-problem in red blood cell where there is not enough glucose (red blood cell depends on glucose)
hemolytic anemia
In the brain, is aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis occuring?
aerobic
in the brain, ... of ATP is generated (when compared to that of the red blood cell)
lots
pyruvate to CO2 is known as ...
oxidative metabolism
the brain has no energy store. It is dependent on ...
glucose
the brain, and therefore liver, muscle cell, and adipose tissue all undergo ...
oxidative metabolism
in the muscle cell, glucose can be converted into glycogen, which is known as ...
glycogenesis
urea cycle occurs in the ...
liver
adipose tissue has lipoprotein lipase which is an inducible enzyme (responds to ...)
hormone
you must have sugar in order to store ...
fat
what are these?
-analogous to VLDL particles
-synthesized in gut
-carrying exogenous into bloodstream
-after a high fatty meal, this will go up
chylomicrons
in the glucagon world, glycogen is broken down to glucose through...
glycogenolysis
can you turn fat into sugar?
NO!!
after 24 hours, ... is broken down to make glucose
protein
pyruvate is broken down to glucose through ...
gluconeogenesis
adipose tissue contains a ... sensitive lipase
hormone
glucagon world is an energy ... world
poor
ketone bodies are small 3 carbon entities that can be utilized as an alternative form of ...

they are taken up into the ...
energy
muscle cell
only after a week, ... have a high enough concentration to get into the brain
ketone bodies
energy from the brain is all from ... (between days 1-4)
protein
... are an alternate source of energy
ketone bodies
what is the corresponding ratio to fat, carbohydrate, protein, and EtOH?
9,4,4,7
what is a measure of energy required to maintain life; i.e. the energy requirement of our major organs and resting muscles?
resting metabolic rate (RMR)
what is this?
-proportional to the amount of metabolically active tissue and the lean body mass.
basal metablic rate (BMR)
... and ... differ very little in value

... is usually greater than ...
BMR and RMR

BMR
RMR
what are these?
-gender (males higher than females)
-body temperature (increased with fever)
-environmental temperature (increased in cold)
-thyroid status (increased in hyperthyroidism)
-pregnancy and lactation (increased)
-age (decreases with age)
factors affecting BMR