Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Backwards Conditioning.
US presented before the CS. Usually results in no change of behavior.
Meichenbaum and AD/HD
Self-instructional training for AD/HD. Verbal instructions for performing a task to increas focus.
Premack Principle
Use a high-probability response to reinforce a low probability response.
Functional Analysis

An analysis of stimulus antecedents.
Intrmittent Schedule of Reinforcement.

Hardest to extinguish.
Memory and trauma
Remote memories return first and then memories closer to the trauma.
Anterograde Amnesia
Memories during the period of anterograde amnesia are lost forever.
Kohler and insight training
Study involving chimps, sticks, and food. Chimps were able to restructure their environment to get the food. A-ha!
Latent Learning
Behavioral consequences appear only at a later time.

Similar to "prescribing the symptom" in family therapy.
Extinction and Operant Conditioning
Eliminating the reinforcement for a previously reinforced response. The result of which is to decrease the frequency of that response.
Extinction and Classical Conditioning
Eliminates an avoidance response by presenting the CS alone (without the UCS). The CS will eventually stop eliciting a CR.
Cognitive Restructuring
Cognitive therapies aimed at modifying maladaptive behaviors by altering irrational or maladaptive cognitions.
Avoidance Response
Established with a CS is paired with an aversive US. The CS then produces a conditioned response (CR) of avoidance.
Implosive Therapy
Combines the principles of behavior therapy with those of traditional psychodynamic therapies. It combines imaginal exposure with psychological exploration. It is used to treat phobias and other disorders in which both learned fear and psychic conflict play an etiological role.
Variable Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement
Reinforcement occurs after a variable number of responses. Most resistant to extinction. i.e., gambling
Fixed Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement
i.e., every 5th response
Fixed Interval Schedule of Reinforcement
i.e., every 5 minutes. Scalloped effect.
Continuous Schedule of Reinforcement
Rewarded for every response.
Latent Learning
Tolman; learning is not immediately manifested in behavior. i.e., do no display what's been learned until there's incentive.
Proactive inhibition
Memory is interfered with by a previous task/activity.
Social Learning Theory; observational learning, learn by watching
Negative Reinforcement
Remove a stimulus to increase behavior.
Positive Reinforcement
Add a stimulus to increase behavior.
Social Learning Theory
Bandura; learn by watching.
Proactive Inhibition
When memory for information is interfered with by a previous task or activity. i.e. exercise and then read a poem.
Avoidance Conditioning
A CS is paired with an aversive US. The CS comes to produce a CR of avoidance.
Classical Extinction
Present the CS alone.
Self Instruction
Used with ADHD children to help their focus on a task. The child verbalizes the instructions to himself.
Ties together a series of a related behaviors to form complex behaviors. Each response acts as a reinforcer and as a cue.
Classical Conditioning
When the relationship between the stimulus and the response is unlearned (comes naturally).
Premack Principle
A common behavior is used to reinforce an uncommon behavior (eat your peas and then you can go out and play).
Nocturnal Enuresis
Bell and pad method is the most effective treatment. In general, psychological treatments are better than pharmocological treatments.
Iconic Memory
Memory that remains in the visual receptors for a short period of time.
Episodic Memory
Memory for autobiographical episodes such as events that have personal meaning.
Implicit Memory
Memory for skills, how to do things, procedures
Declaritive Memory
Conscious awareness of remembering facts and events.
Elaborative Rehearsal
Thinking about the meaning of new information and its relation to information already in memory--results in deeper learning and is superior to all forms of repetition.