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250 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Structural Theory, Freud, divides the psyche into three parts. They are:
id, ego and super ego
What is the id?
governed by pleasure principal, it is the source of sexual and aggressive drives
What is the ego?
governed by the reality principal, functions to defer id gratification in accordance with environmental demands
What is super ego?
serves as conscience. comes from internalization of societal and parental restrictions
When ego can't give in to the id's needs do to pressures from the super ego, that creates _______ and the ego deploys ______ to deal with it
conflict, defense mechanisms
Freudian defense mechanisms
repression, denial, reaction formation, rationalization, projection, displacement, fixation, sublimation, projective identification, splitting, intellectualization, undoing
Primary and secondary processes
Primary is unconscious and secondary is conscious
Primary processes include:
dreams, slip of the tongue, and jokes
Secondary processes include
logical and sequential and function accoring to the reality (ego) principal
Freud goal of therapy
gain access to patient's unconscious, engender insight, and strengthen the Ego so behavior is based more on reality
Parallel process
the phenomenon whereby a counselor will respond to his or her supervisor in a way that parallels the manner in which the client responds to the counselor.
Reaction formation
Reaction Formation is where a person avoids one position by taking a polar opposite
Sublimation is the refocusing of psychic energy (which Sigmund Freud believed was limited) away from negative outlets to more positive outlets. For example, a student who has a major upcoming test, rather than spending time and energy worrying about it, would rechannel that time and energy into studying. In Freud's classic theory, erotic energy is only allowed limited expression due to repression, and much of the remainder of a given group's erotic energy is used to develop its culture and civilization.
Projective Identification
an unconscious defense mechanism in which unacceptable aspects of the self are falsely attributed to others; it differs from projection in that the target is transformed, unconsciously identifying and responding, and the aspects that are projected are not completely disavowed but rather are perceived as justifiable reactions to the other person's induced responses.
Six steps in psychoanalysis
confrontation, clarification, interpretation, catharisi, and insight
Jung called his system ______psychology
Jung believe unconscious existed on two levels.
Individual and collective
Collective unconscious arrises from universally inherited neural patterns including
Jung developed terms: _______for interest in external things and ________for turning inward toward the libido
Extraversion and introversion
Mid-life crisis is the time when we trun fro ______to blank
Extraversion to introversion
Adler's psychology was called
Individual Psychology
Adler: striving to overcome inferiority, child develops
defense mechanisms
Tow Adlerian based programs in use today
Karen Horney. Neofreudian, what was basic tenant
parental behqaviors such as indifference, overprotection and rejection cause basic anxiety in a child including hopelessness and isolation. Child adapts by movement agaginst others, or movement away from others
Harry Stack Sullivan
prototaxix mode, Parataxic distortions when someone deals with others as if they were significant persons from his early life
Erich Fromm
emphasized that role of societal factors in personality development receptive, exploitive, hoarding, marketing and productive.
includes Anna Freud, David Rappaport and Heinz Hartmann, place greater emphasis on ego's role in personality development. Ego-defensive functions and ego-autonomous functions
Object Relations Theory: List participants
Melanie Klein, Ronald Fairbairn, Margarte Mahler, Otto Kernberg, Heinz Kohut, Donald Winnicott
Object relations Theory. What is Object introject?
Mental representation of a person, either a self or another (at first the mother)
Problems with object-introject
If deveelopment delayed by disturbed parent, the representations of self or other remain at infantile level. People get seen as good or quickly bad. And when bad, all bad
Heinz Kohut key figure in what school?
Object relations
Heinz Kohut is best know for work on:
Narcissism. When childs needs are not satisfied, he develops a protective grandiose self. Grandiose self is modified during maturation unless parent responds in unempathis ways.
Therapy based upon Object relations does what?
Provides a type of reparenting that facilitates reintegration of the ego. Therapist takes an actiove role and provides support and acceptance.
Client Centered Therapy: Key guy
Carl Rogers
Client Centered Therapy: Goal
Realize the capacity for self-actualization
Client Centered Therapy: decrease what
incongruence between real and ideal self
Client Centered Therapy: Three process steps:
Empathetic Understanding, Unconditional positive regard, congruence (therapist is honest in words and actions)
Existential Therapy: two types of anxiety
Normal and neurotic
Existential Therapists are:
honest, open and egalitarian.
Existentail Therapist goal in relationship with client
authentic and intimate
Existential: grief reactions and sadness about life milkestones relate to what?
fears of isolation and death.
Gestalt Therapy created by who?
Fritz Perls
Gestalt Therapy: concept of figure-ground means?
figure is what person is paying attention to and ground represents what a person is not noticing
Gestalt therapy focus on what awareness
here and now
Gestalt therapy personality consists of self and self-image which are?
self promotes actualization and growth, self-image imposes external standards and impairs growth
Gestalt Introjection:
absorbing info without understanding it
Gestalt projection
attributing our unacceptable thoughts to another
Gestalt Retroflection:
a person does to himself what he wants to do to others
Gestalt Deflection
avaods contact or awareness by being vague, indirect and overly polite.
Gestalt Confluence
self is merged into the beliefs and attitudes of others
Gestalt Isolation
more extreme than confluence. awareness of boundary between self and environment is nonexistant.
Gestalt theory of pathology
One can interpret the present situation and appropriately self regulate the boundaries between self and environment
Goals of gestalt therapy
awareness of environemnt and self
Gestalt techniques
directed awareness, I statements, dream analysis and empty chair technique
Reality Therapy by who
William Glasser
Reality therapy basics
focus client on present behavior, encourage client to take responsibility for his actions
Reality Therapy: peole have five basic needs
survival, power, belonging, freedom and fun
Reality Therapy. Success identity versus failure indenity
Success identity meets their needs in a responsible manner, failure identity meets needs in irresponsible manner
Transaction Analysis TA developed by
Eric Berne
TA: Three ego states
Child, parent, adult. at any point in time, one of these states is activated
TA: Strokes
transactions takes place between ego states by strokes, or recognition from others. Can be positive or negative
TA: Scripts
a persons life plan. Script developed early and reflects persons pattern of giving and receiving strokes
TA: Life positions
one can develop one of 4 life positions. i'm ok, you're ok i'm ok, you're not ok, i'm not ok you are, we're both not ok. We all start in the first healthy position
TA: three types of transactions
Complementary, crossed, one responds from child ego state. Ulterior, one gives dual message
TA Games:
unterior transactions based upon repeated themes resulting in bad feelings
TA: Goal
integrate three ego states.
Feminist therapy rests on what assumption about social roles and socialization?
They are important determinants
In Feminists therapy Psychological conflicts are interpreted as arising from
social role conflicts
In Feminists therapy the primary goal is
In Feminists therapy the doctor client relationship is
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Main types
Beck's Cognitive Therapy, Rational emotive Therapy, stress inoculation training, hypnosis, biofeedbac
Beck CT def
how one thinks largely determines how one feels and behaves
Beck has three levels of cognition that affect pathology. They are
automatic thoughts, Schemas (core beliefs), and cognitive distortions.
Beck automatic thoughts
thoughts that arise spontaneously in response to specific stimuli
Becks Schemas
core beliefs, underlying assumptions, models of self and world that develop over the course of time
Becks cognitive distortions
systematic errors in reasoning that form the link between dysfunctional schemas and automatic thoughts. new information is processed and biased.
Beck cognitive distortion Arbitrary inference
drawing a conclusion without supporting evidence
Beck cognitive distortion
selective abstraction
focus on detail taken out of context
Beck cognitive distortion
abstracting a general rule from one or few isolated incidents
Beck cognitive distortion
Magnification and minimization
seeing something as far more significant or less significant than it really is
Beck cognitive distortion
attributing external events to oneself without evidence of causal connection
Beck cognitive distortion
dichotomous thinking
categorizing experiences into one or two extremes
Beck research shows that depressed patients have more cognitive distortions including
distorted automatic thoughts, remember more neg than positive
Beck research. Patients have cognitive triad
negative thoughts about self, the future and the world
Becks cognitive techniques
eliciting automatic thoughts, decatastrophizing, reattribution and defining
Becks behavioral techniques
homework to self monitor, activity scheduling, graded task assignments, hypothesis testing, behavioral rehearsal and role playing, diversion techniques
Beck CT outcome data
studies show that for depression, Beck is better than drug alone but combined is best.
Rational Emotive Therapy, developed by
Albert Ellis
Rational Emotive Therapy, ABC theory
A. people experiece undesirable events. B. they have rational and irrational beliefs about these events C. they creat appropriate appropriate emotional and behavioral consequences with their rational beliefs or they create inappropriate and dysfunctional consequences with their irrational beliefs
Rational Emotive Therapy:Goal
modify irrational beliefs about life events and replace them
Rational Emotive Therapy:Musts
we construct absolute musts and then I must be wealthy leads to I'm worthless because I'm not wealthy
Rational Emotive Therapy: Therapist will challenge a patients dysfunctional beliefs? True or false
Stimulous Control: narrowing
restricting target behavior to limited set of stimuli, eg eat only at dinner table
Stimulous Control:Cue Strengthening
linking behavior to increase to specific cue, eg location with studying
Stimulous Control:Competing responses
identifying and eliminating responses that block desirable behaviors or encouraging responses that block undesirable behaviors.
Stress inoculation Training
good outcome for anger: 1.cognitive preparation, 2.skills acquisition, 3. practice
Hypnotherapy definition
relaxed wakefulness, with suspension of peripheral awareness
Hypnotherapy: three elements
absorption, dissociation, and suggestibility
Hypnotherapy uses
PTSD to gain control over flashbacks, habit or self control
Hypnotherapy Contradictions
psychotic disorders, paranod, oc personality. Depressed and manic are hard to hypnotize
generally effective, few comparitive studies.
Biofeedback: Uses
psychophysiological, eg hypertension, tension and migrain headaches, ulcers
Biofeedback: Outcomes
controversial. effective but not more so than relaxation training. treatment of choice for fecal incontinence and Raynaud's disease
Biofeedback: two types and uses
EMG for tension headaches and skin temperature biofeedback for other issues
Paradoxical Intention Def
instruct clients to do what they fear, eg stay awake if you are insomniac.
Paradoxical Intention: Purpose
circumvent anticipatory anxiety, which is the cause of the problem. Works best with insomnia
Guided Imagery: uses and examples
imagine public speaking and discuss thoughts, visualize police officer at stop sign during impulse to overeat, imagery to distract from cravings for a substance
Transtheoretical model of change: authors
prochaska and DiClemente
Transtheoretical model of change: five stages
precontemplation little insight, contemplation aware but not ready, preparation in next month, action, maintenance has lasted 6 months
Motivational interviewing
help clients resolve ambivalence, build committment. Used to help patients change. based upon prochaska and DiClemente's transtheoretical model of change
Family Systems: Equifinality
patterns of behavior not topics are important
Family Systems: equipotentiality
one cause can lead to dif results. eg incest might lead to promiscuity or inhibition later in life
Family Systems: Homeostasis
tendency of system to restore to status quo
Family Systems: Negative Feedback:
father yells to restore comfortable equilibrium
Family Systems: Positive feedback
disruptions which creat change in status quo
Metacommunication: Def
communication at two levels. Report:intended verbal statement, command: implicit non-verbal message
Bowen: Extended family systems Triangulation
parents involve child in conflict, whatever the child does bothers one parent
Bowen: Goals
differentiation, genograms, therapist puts himself in triagulation
Structural Family Therapy: Developer
Structural Family Therapy:disengagement
rigid boundaries that promote isolation.
Structural Family Therapy: Detouring
spouses reinforce deviant behavior in the child to take the focus off problems they are having with each other
Structural Family Therapy: Two types of joining
Mimesis(adopting family style) and tracting(identifying with families values and history)
Structural Family Therapy: Family map
chart of transactional patterns
Structural Family Therapy: three restructuring patterns:
enactment, reframing and blocking
Strategic Family Therapy: Author
Jay Haley
Strategic Family Therapy:Focus
current problem
Strategic Family Therapy: To haley, therapy is?
Power struggle between family and therapist
Strategic Family Therapy: three stategies:
Directives(straightforward or paradoxical), Reframing (relabel to make more amenable to change), Circular Questioning (therapsist askes each family member about relationships and notes differences to help family see problems in a new light)
Operant Interpersonal Therapy: Author
Richard Stewart
Operant Interpersonal Therapy: definition
marital therapy based upon operant conditioning and social exchange theory
Object-Relations Family Therapy: what therapy school, what key components
psychodynamic, includes insight and transferences
Group Therapy: Father
Irvin Yalom
Group makeup
best if similar developmental level and intelligence level
Group Size:
Yalom Group Three stages:
Hesitant, Power (oppose Therapist), and Cohesive
Group Leader
handle multiple transferences, encourage participation, Co-Therapy is good, open disagreement is OK later
Group Therapy benefits
Hope, info sharing, others have similar problems, Most important is interpersonal learning, catharsis and cohesiveness.
Crisis Intervention goals
reduce symptoms, increase coping, restore prev level of functioning, prevent future breakdowns
Crisi Intervention Stages
formulation (indentify crisis), Implementation (previous assessment, goals and implementation), Termination.
Brief Psychotherapy
less than 25 sessions, therapeutic alliance is primary
Solution Focused Therapy: Type and authors
brief therapy developed by de Shazer and Insoo Berg
Solution Focused Therapy: Components
Goals to move client from complaint narratives to solution narratives. Miracle Question, narrative stories and language games
Personality Inventories: Based upon
criterion keying. Common answers in large groups
MMPI Clinical Scales: HS
Hypochondriasis: abnormal preoccupation with somatic(relating to the body) functioning
MMPI Clinical Scales D
depression: conventional notion of helpless, hopeless, worthless
MMPI Clinical Scales: HY
Hysteria: Physical symptoms with functional origin, high score suggests conversion reaction
Conversion Reaction: Def
conversion of mental conflict into somatic forms (into paralysis or anesthesia having no apparent cause)
MMPI Clinical Scales: PD
Psychopathic Deviate: lack of social consciousness;antisocial tendancies
MMPI Clinical Scales: Mf
interests typical of the opposite sex
MMPI Clinical Scales:Pa
paranoia: vigilance and extreme suspiciousness
MMPI Clinical Scales:Pt
Psychasthenia: neurotic manifestations other than hysteria, especially phobias, compulsions
MMPI Clinical Scales:Sc
Schizophrenia:thought disorder, bizarre actions
MMPI Clinical Scales:Ma
Hypomania:manic style, inability to concentrate
MMPI Clinical Scales:Si
Social introversion:intraversion/extraversion
MMPI scoring:
T-score, mean 50, Sd is 10, over 65 is significant
MMPI: Pattern Analysis def
scores on several scales are compared to identify a pattern
MMPI Valididty Scales:L
(lie) above 55, person perfectionistic, defensive, wants to be seen in favorable light, endorses socially approved attitudes no one typically has
MMPI Valididty Scales: F
(Infrequency)Statements endorsed by one 10% of pop. F above 70 is looking bad to seek help or antisocial. Score above 90 are invalid
MMPI Valididty Scales:K
(Korrection)defensiveness and guardedness. High score indicates means test taker does not want to reveal anything and attempts to deny. Score less than 40 means low self image. Score above 60 suggest rigid inability to look inside.
MMPI Valididty Scales: TRIN
(True Response Inconsistancy) Assess subjects tendency to endorce items in a consistant way, such as all true or all false
Rorschach Inkblot: what type test
Rorschach Inkblot: Location
areas of inkblot used in responses. Whole (W) and Unusual detail (Dd)
Rorschach Inkblot: Determinants
characteristics of an inkblot including Form (F). Form answers are based upon perceived form features, ie shape.
Rorschach Inkblot:Content
refers to percepts or subjects perceived by the examinee. Eg Human content (H) and animal content (A)
Rorschach Inkblot: Populars
coded P, most frequent seen form responses. High number may reflect excessive conventionality
Rorschach Inkblot:Research
Using John Exners scoring system, may have larger validity coefficients than the MMPI
Thematic Apperception Test TAT: Type
Thematic Apperception Test: def
subjects tell stories using a given set of pictures. subjects asked what characters were thinking, etc
Draw a Person test
assumes drwaing represents expression of self.
Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory: SCII Def
assesses persons personal interests and compares them to norms from people satisfied and successful in various occupations.
Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory: SCII Outcome data
More valid for predicting occupational choice and satisfaction, but not success
Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory: SCII Interests are reported how?
In terms of general Occupational themes developed by Holland which are realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enetrprising and conventional
Kruder Vocational Preference Record KVP-R def
Yields an indication of interet in broad areas versus the Strong Campbell which shows specific occupations
Neuropsychological assessment: What
process of measuring deficits and relating to known or suspected brain lesions
What are these? Abstraction, concept-formation, psychomotor function, sensory-perceptual functions, visual-spatial skills, verbal abilities, memory, alertness and concentrated attention and motivational-emotional functioning
areas of Neuropsychological assessment
Neuropsychological assessment
Luria-Nebraska Battery
Neuropsychological assessment
Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test: Def
screening device, rarely used without other assessment devices
Stroop Color-Word test
used to measure frontal lobe damage. Screening device
Eysenck 1952 found what
19 studies, no different than no therapy. Then in 1985 agreed that behavior therapy alone made a difference
Smith, Glass and Miller outcome studies found
treatment efferct size of .85 meaning the average client is better off than 80% of controls and 66% of treated versus 33% of controls show improvement. Used metaanalysis of 475 studies
Standard conclusion of outcome studies about one therapy versus another
no difference
Which is better predictor of outcome? Client variables or therapist?
Client variable: Intelligence
higher will benefit more
Client Outcome variable: Openness/Nondefensiveness
More open will do better
Client Outcome variable:Age:
No difference
Client Outcome variable: Gender
Client Outcome variable: Motivation
Client Outcome variable: Understanding of goals
being clear is moderate predictor
Client Outcome variable: Socioeconomic Status
No difference but low socioeconomic are referred to less experienced therapists
Client Outcome variable:Personality Characteristics:
ego strength, suggestibility and anxiety tolerance help
Client Outcome variable:Expectations:
Very high or low expectations don't do as well. Moderate expectations do best
Therapist Outcoome Variables: Age
Therapist Outcoome Variables: Ethnicity
No affect on outcome but ethnic similarity reduces low early drop-out. Some research show blacks disclose more to blacks and self-exploration higher
Therapist Outcoome Variables: Emotional well-being
clear but modest
Therapist Outcoome Variables: Expectations
better if similar expectations
Therapist Outcoome Variables:Self disclosure
Therapist Outcoome Variables: Orientation
Therapist Outcoome Variables: Gender
Therapist Outcoome Variables:Competence
few studies but most important
Therapist Outcoome Variables: Therapeutic Alliance
most important
Therapist Outcoome Variables: Duration
Linear up to 26 weeks
Therapist Outcoome Variables: Type
generally no difference
Therapy Outcoome:Children
Children and adolescents same as adults
Therapy Outcoome: Girls versus boys
girls best and adolescent girls better yet
Therapy Outcoome:Geriatric depression
Therapy Outcoome: Phases of therapy
Howard et al phase one Remoralization (reduce hopelessness, phase two remediation (symptomatic relief in 16 sessions) and rehabilitation (better functioning)
Cross Cultural: Emic, Etic
Emic (meaningful from viewpoint of members of the culture, Etic (that which scientific community thinks is important
Cross Cultural: Study of latino clients found three classes of factors with limited therapy interactions
Language, class bound values (middle class for therapists and culture-bound values used by therapists to decide what is normal
Cross Cultural: Variable that may affect therapy outcome: Racial Cultural identification:
The stronger the client identification, the more important a same culture therapist
Cross Cultural: Attitude similarity
same attitude more important that race
Cross Cultural:Therapist sensitivity
the more sensitive helped for better alliance
Cross Cultural:presenting issue
may be important but not sure how
Cross Cultural: Cultural Encapsulation:
therapist defines world by his world and culture, ignores cultural variations, unaware of his biases, defines counseling in terms of dogmatically accepted techniques.
Cross Cultural: Acculturation
Process when one culture assimilates with another. Less acculturated individuals want racially similar therapist.
Cross Cultural:Berry's acculturation Model: Integration
High retention of minority culture and high maintenance of mainstream culture
Cross Cultural:Berry's acculturation Model: Assimilation
Low retention of minority culture and high maintenance of mainstream culture
Cross Cultural:Berry's acculturation Model: Separation;
High retention of minority culture and low maintenance of mainstream culture
Cross Cultural:Berry's acculturation Model: Marginalization
Low retention of minority culture and low maintenance of mainstream culture
Cultural Issues: High Context Communication:
Black, hispanic, native americans. Low verbal, higher non-verbal
Minority Utilization of mental health services
Higher inpatient, lower outpatient
Minority Development Model (Atkinson, Morten and Sue): Stage One Conformity
Prefers dominant culture
Minority Development Model (Atkinson, Morten and Sue): Stage two Dissonance
Confusiion and conflict
Minority Development Model (Atkinson, Morten and Sue): Resistance and Immersion
Rejects mainstream and endorses his culture
Minority Development Model (Atkinson, Morten and Sue): Introspection
begins to question total loyalty to his own culture
Minority Development Model (Atkinson, Morten and Sue): Synergistic Articulation and Awareness
self fulfillment and great autonomy, wants to eliminate opression
White and People of Color Racial Identity Model. Janet Helms. Six identity Statuses: Contact
Limited contact with people of color and oblivious to their whiteness
White and People of Color Racial Identity Model. Janet Helms. Six identity Statuses: Disintegration
greater awareness and awareness of inequalities
White and People of Color Racial Identity Model. Janet Helms. Six identity Statuses:Reintegration
Resolve their conflist by determining whites are superior
White and People of Color Racial Identity Model. Janet Helms. Six identity Statuses:Pseudo Independence
dissatisfaction with reintegration and re-examination
White and People of Color Racial Identity Model. Janet Helms. Six identity Statuses:Immersion-Emersion
embrace their whiteness without rejecting minorities
White and People of Color Racial Identity Model. Janet Helms. Six identity Statuses: Autonomy
internalize nonracist white indenity based upon realistic understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of White culture
Counseling Black Clients: Best when
problem oriented and time limited
Counseling Black Clients: How much focus on differences?
pay attention but don't over focus
Counseling Black Clients: Nigresence Theory. Definition
The process of becoming black
Counseling Black Clients: Cross Model of Psychological Nigresence . Pre-encounter
white culture dominated
Counseling Black Clients: Cross Model of Psychological Nigresence. Encounter
Event causes disruption and ends with frantic search for African American Identity
Counseling Black Clients: Cross Model of Psychological Nigresence. Immersion-Emersion
destroy all remnats of old identity
Counseling Black Clients: Cross Model of Psychological Nigresence. Internalization
Openness and anti-caucasion feelings diminish
Counseling Black Clients: Cross Model of Psychological Nigresence. Internalization-Commitment
Reduces political activity but activism to improve condition of african-Americans
Counseling Hispanic: Characteristics
Patriarchal: Rigid sex roles and family roles. Hispanics prefer personal contact and attention
Counseling native America Clients: Issues
Know tribe and family system, prefer non-directive, history oriented and accepting and cooperative approach.
Counseling native America Clients: Therapist traits
Therpists should be reserved, open, accepting and very willing to listen
Counseling Asian American Clients: Issues
Family, age and sex determine social roles, traditional, patriarchal, respectful of elders
Counseling Asian American Clients: In Therapy clients are
Reserved and inhibited, hard to discuss emotions
Counseling Asian American Clients: In Therapy clients prefer
Direct, structured and short-term
Counseling the Elderly
Avoid Stereotypes, note high rate of depression
Counseling gays and Lesbians
Homosexuality Identity Formation Stages
Isolation, Alienation and shame, rejection of self, Passing as straight, Consolidating a self identity by calling self gay, accultuation (learning to be gay), Integrating self and public identity(coming out), Pride and synthesis(acquiring integration and community)
Sexual Prejudice: Term coined by Gregory Herek. Definition
negative attitude about individuals orientation