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83 Cards in this Set

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Freud's personality theory
ID (at birth)
pleasure principle

Ego (6 months)
reality principle

Superego (4 or 5 yrs)
moral values
Jung's personality theory
personal unconscious

collective unconscious (incl. archetypes)

transferences = projections of personal & collective unconscious
Neo-Freudians - who?
Karen Horney

Harry Stack Sullivan

Erich Fromm
According to Harry Stack Sullivan, maladaptive behaviour due to ...
parataxic distortions
Self Psychology - who?
Heinz Kohut

best known for work on narcissism
3 facilitative conditions for Person-Centered Therapy (Rogers)
unconditional positive regard (respect)

genuineness (congruence)

empathy
Gestalt Therapy - who?
Fritz Perls
PSYCHOANALYSIS therapy goals
bringing unconscious into conscious awareness & integrating previously repressed material into personality
PSYCHOANALYSIS therapy techniques
free association

dream analysis

confrontation of resistance

transference by being neutral
PSYCHOANALYSIS - view of maladaptive behaviour
unconscious, unresolved conflict
ADLERIAN - personality theory
inferiority feelings

striving for superiotiry

style of life

social interest
ADLERIAN - view of maladaptive behaviour
mistaken style of life characterized by overcompensation, preoccupation for personal power, and lack of social interest
ADLERIAN - techniques
Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP)

Systematic Training for Effective Teaching (STET)
JUNG'S - personality theory
personality is consequence of conscious & unconscious factors.

personality consists of extraversion and introversion
JUNG'S - view of maladaptive behaviour
symptoms are unconscious messages
JUNG'S - therapy goals
bridge gap between conscious and unconscious (both)

Note: countertransference useful
Object Relations - who?
Melanie Klein
Ronald Fairbairn
Margaret Mahler
Otto Kernberg
OBJECT RELATIONS - view of maladaptive behaviour
abnormalities in early object relations
OBJECT RELATIONS - therapy goals
restore client's ability to relate to others in meaningful ways
SELF PSYCHOLOGY - personality theory
parents' ability to provide their child with factors that lead to a cohesive send of self, or "healthy narcissism"
SELF PSYCHOLOGY - view of maladaptive behaviour
parents unempathic response to child leads to pathological narcissism
SELF PSYCHOLOGY - therapy goals
provide empathy to help client express unfulfilled narcissistic needs
INTERPERSONAL THERAPY - who?
Klerman & Weissman
IPT - view of maladaptive behaviour
depression related to problems in social roles & interpersonal relationships due to lack of strong early attachments
IPT - therapy goals
symptom reduction & improved interpersonal functioning
PERSON-CENTERED THERAPY - view of maladaptive behaviour
incongruence between self & experience
PERSON-CENTERED THERAPY - therapy goals
self-actualization
GESTALT THERAPY - personality theory
personality consists of self (creativity) and self-image ("darker side" due to external standards). One dominates.
GESTALT THERAPY - view of maladaptive behaviour
disturbance in boundary between self & self-image (i.e. external envirnoment)

4 boundary disturbances:
introjection (leading to neurosis)
projection
retroflection
confluence (no boundary bet self & environment)

Lack of integration

Problem with homeostasis
GESTALT THERAPY - goals
integration of self & self-image to become WHOLE
GESTALT - techniques
no questions

"I" language

empty-chair technique

dreamwork
REALITY THERAPY - who?
William Glasser
REALITY THERAPY - view of maladaptive behaviour
failure identity vs success identity
REALITY THERAPY - therapy goals
help clients identify responsible and effective ways to satisfy needs
Key feature of cybernetics

re: family therapy
negative feedback loop (bad)
- reduces deviation
- maintains status quo

positive feedback loop (good)
- amplifies deviation/change
- disrupts system
Types of communication (2)

re: communication/interaction family therapy
symmetrical communications
- equality between communicators
- competitive "one-upmanship"

complementary communications
- inequality bet communicators
e.g. dominant & submissive
COMMUNICATION/INTERACTION FAMILY THERAPY - view of maladaptive behaviour
circular model of causality

i.e. sysmptom is both cause and effect of dysfunctional communication patterns
COMMUNICATION/INTERACTION FAMILY THERAPY - therapy goals & techniques
alter interactional patterns maintaining symptoms

paradoxical strategies
EXTENDED FAMILY SYSTEMS THERAPY - who?
Murray Bowen
EXTENDED FAMILY SYSTEMS THERAPY - concepts (5)
differentialtion of self

emotional triangle

nuclear family emotional system

family projection process

multigenerational transmission process
EXTENDED FAMILY SYSTEMS THERAPY - view of maladaptive behaviour
multigenerational transmission process

i.e. progressively lower levels of differentiation transmitted from one generation to the next
EXTENDED FAMILY SYSTEMS THERAPY - therapy goals & techniques
increase differentiation of all family members

therapeutic triangle
genogram
STRUCTURAL FAMILY THERAPY - who?
Salvador Minuchin
STRUCTURAL FAMILY THERAPY - concepts
rigid boundaries - "disengaged"

permeable boundaries - "enmeshed"

3 chronic boundary problems:

detouring
stable coalition
triangulation
STRUCTURAL FAMILY THERAPY - view of maladaptive behaviour
inflexible family structure
STRUCTURAL FAMILY THERAPY - therapy techniques
joining (by tracking)
enactment
reframing
STRATEGIC FAMILY THERAPY - who?
Jay Haley
STRATEGIC FAMILY THERAPY - view of maladaptive behaviour
communication misuse to increase control in relationship
STRATEGIC FAMILY THERAPY - therapy goals
alter hierarchies & generational coundaries in family

Note: insight = counterproductive due to resistance
STRATEGIC FAMILY THERAPY - therapy techniques
paradoxical intervention (to make use of resistance) by
- restraining
- positioning
- reframing
- prescribing the sx
ordeals
MILAN SYSTEMIC FAMILY THERAPY - who?
Mara Selvini-Palazzoli
MILAN SYSTEMIC FAMILY THERAPY - view of maladaptive behaviour
circular patterns of action and reaction in family system.

problems when family's patterns become fixed
MILAN SYSTEMIC FAMILY THERAPY - therapy goals
help family members see their choices
MILAN SYSTEMIC FAMILY THERAPY - therapy techniques
therapeutic team (observational mirror & conferences)

circular questioning (to clarify discrepancies in perspectives)
Steps of crisis intervention (4)
relieving sx

restoring premorbid functioning

identifying triggers of crisis

identifying remedial measures
primary prevention
intervention available to all memers of a a group

e.g. public eduction on drugs
immunization program
prenatal nutrition for low SES
secondary prevention
emphasizes early detection and targets specific individuals

e.g. screening tests for 1st graders to identify learning probs
tertiary prevention
to reduce the duration and consequences of an illness that has already occurred

e.g. halfway houses
types of mental health consultation (4)
client-centered case consultation

consultee-centered case consultation

program-centered administrative consultation

consultee-centered administrative consultation
client-centered case consultation
working with the consultee so that she can work more effectively with a particular client
consultee-centered case consultation
targets the consultee's skills & knolwedge so the consultee can be more successful in dealing with a particular group of clients
program-centered administrative consultation
working with administrators to resolve problems related to an existing program
consultee-centered administrative consultation
helps administrators improve their professional functioning with regard to program development and implementation
parallel process
occurs when therapist behaves toward supervisor in ways that mirror how client is behaving toward therapist
Eysenck outcome study
improvment

72% no-therapy
66% eclectic psychotherapy
44% psychoanalysis

... due to "spontaneous remission"
Smith, Glass & Miller outcome study
meta-analysis

mean effect size of .85

average client at end of therapy better off than 80% of those needing therapy
dose dependent effect of therapy
75% pts show improvement at 26 sessions. But then levels off
stages of change (Prochaska & DiClemente)
precontemplation
contemplation (within 6 months)
preparation (within 1 month)
action
maintenance (lasted for 6 months)
cultural encapsulation
BAD

tendency to interpret everyone's reality through own cultural assumptions & stereotypes
emic vs etic orientation

re: MCT
emic (GOOD)
undertanding culture from perspective of members of that culture

etic (BAD)
assumes that universal principles can be applied to all cultures
high vs. low context communication

re: MCT
high-context (culturally-diverse groups)
shared cultural understanding and nonverbal cues

low-context (Anglos)
relies primarily on verbal message
healthy cultural paranoia
appropriate mistrust of Afriacan-Americans toward whites resulting from racism and oppression
Ridley's model of paranoia

re: MCT
intercultural nonparanoiac discloser (L Functional P; L Cultural P)

functional paranoiac (H Functional P; L Cultural P)

healthy cultural paranoiac (L Functional P; H Cultural P)

confluent paranoiac (H Functional P; H Cultural P)
acculturation (Berry)
adopting his/her own culture and that of dominant group as intergration, assimilation, separation, or marginalization
categories of acculturation (4)
integration

assimulation

separation

marginalization
integration

re: acculturation
person maintains his own (minority) culture but also incorporates many aspects of the dominant culture
assimilation

re: acculturation
person accepts majority culture which reliniquishing his own culture
separation

re: acculturation
person withdraws from dominant culture and accepts his own culture
marginalization

re: acculturation
person does not identity with either his own culture or dominant culure
5 stages of Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model

Atkinson, Morten & Sue
conformity
dissonance
resistance & immersion
introspection
integrative awareness
4 stages of Black Racial (Nigrescence) Identity Development Model

Cross
preencounter
encounter
immersion/emersion
internatlization/commitment
6 stages of White Racial Identity Development Model

Helms
contact
disintegration
reintegration
pseude-independence
emmersion-emersion
autonomy
4 stages of Gay & Lesbian Identity Development Model

Troiden
sensitization; feeling different
self-recognition: identity confusion
identity assumption
commitment; identity integration