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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
central processing
Classification of a stimulus through the use of memory, reasoning, and evaluation; the second step in the information-processing model.
cooperative learning
The teacher gives a task to a small group of students who are expected to complete the task by working cooperatively with one another.
developmental disabilities
Mental retardation and related conditions (e.g., cerebral palsy) that create a substantial delay in the child's development and require intervention from many professional disciplines.
differentiated instruction
Refers to the changes in teacher strategies and curriculum made necessary by the characteristics of the exceptional child.
Down syndrome
A chromosomal abnormality that leads to mild or moderate mental retardation and, at times, a variety of hearing, skeletal, and heart problems.
encephalitis
Children and adults are also at risk of brain damage from viruses that produce high fevers, which, in turn, destroy brain cells.
extrinsic motivation
Motivating students to complete a task by promising a reward.
intrinsic motivation
Motivation that is internal to the student; self-motivation.
karyotyping
A process by which a picture of chromosomal patterns is prepared to identify chromosomal abnormality.
mental retardation
A combination of subnormal intelligence and deficits in adaptive behavior, manifested during the developmental period.
phenylketonuria (PKU)
a single-gene defect that can produce severe retardation because of the body's inability to break down phenylalanine, which when accumulated at high levels in the brain results in severe damage; can be controlled by a diet restricting phenylalnine.
positive behavior supports (PBS)
These are used to reduce or eliminate obnoxious nonadaptive behaviors. Combining functional analysis with modification of the environment around the child has been found to be effective.
positive reinforcement
The application of a positive stimulus immediately following a response.
reciprocal teaching
A technique in which small groups of students and teachers take turns leading a discussion.
respite care
The services of a trained individual to relieve the primary caregiver of a child with disabilities on a short-term basis.
rubella
German measles, which in the first three months of pregnancy can cause visual impairment, hearing impairment, mental retardation, and defects in the fetus.
social learning approach
A system designed to develop critical thinking and independent action by students.
task analysis
A method that breaks down comlex tasks into simpler component parts, teaches each of the components separately, then teaches them together; a procedure under which a child receives positive reinforcement for each step or part of the total task as it is completed.
teratogen
A substance ingested by the mother that can damage the growth and development of the fetus.
universal design for learning (UDL)
A variety of strategies that give all students access to the curriculum. These strategies include the use of technology to reduce the impact of sensory and learning disabilities, the incorporation of flexible entry points to allow students to begin work at a level that is appropriate to their needs, and the use of multiple instructional approaches to respond to the different learning needs and styles of the students.