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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 muscle layers of stomach
1) longitudinal muscle layer (outside)
2) circular muscle layer (middle)
3) oblique muscle layer (inner)
gastric pit
narrow channel
mucous neck cells
secretes mucus
to preserve epithelial tissues of stomach form HCL acid
parietal cells
secrete HCL acids and intrinsic factor
HCL acids
1) denatures proteins
2) converts pepsinogen into pepsin
intrinsic factor
needed for absorption of vit. B12
chief cells
secrete pepsinogen (inactive form)
the hepatic ducts (R & L)from the liver combine to form?
the common hepatic duct
common hepatic duct combines with the cystic duct from the GB to form?
common bile duct
the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct combine to form?
hepatopancreatic ampulla
the hepatopancreatic ampulla empties into the duodenum at ?
major duodenal papilla
the dispersion of large lipid globules to smaller, uniformly distributed particles in the presence of bile
1) the largest organ w/i the abd. cavity
2) intraperitoneal
3) located in the right hypochondriac region
superior portion of the liver is in contact with?
the inferior portion of the diaphragm
gallbladder is located in?
the inferior portion of the liver
four lobes of the liver
1) right lobe
2) left lobe
3) quadrate lobe
4) caudate lobe
which lobe is the largest?
right lobe
functions of the liver
1) vascular
2) metabolic
3) secretory
4) excretory
the functional unit of the liver
liver lobule
liver lobule
constructed around a central vein
like channels
microscopic spaces or passages for blood in the liver
sinusoids receives
mixed blood from portal vein and hepatic artery
portal triad (portal tract)
1) bile duct
2) portal vein (deoxy. B, lots of nutrients)
3) hepatic artery (oxigenated B)
blood flow through the liver and return
1) hepatic artery (oxy) & hepatic portal vein (deoxy, nutrients rich)
2) liver sinusoids
3) central vein
4) hepatic vein (R & L)
5) inferior vena cava
6) right atrium of heart
Kupffer cells in sinusoid
1) phagocytes & defense
2) clean & filter microorganism
1) liver cells
2) secrete bile
1) are flanked by the hepatic plates
2) receive blood from the small arterioles
3) always in contact with portal blood
how much of blood the liver sinusoids receive per min.?
total of 1.45L/min
(1.1 L from the portal vein & 350 ml form the arterial system)
1.45 L/min. of blood equal to?
1) 29 % of resting CO
2) 33 % of the total body blood flow
Is liver expandable?
(ex) CHF pt (R. heart failure)- hepatomegaly
How much of blood the liver normally store?
450 ml of blood
(almost 10 % of the body's total blood volume)
Kupffer cells
1) clean the blood while it passes along the sinusoids
2) so, no more than 1 % of the bacteria enters the liver
carbohydrates metabolism by the liver
1) stores glycogen
2) converts fructose and galactose into glucose
3) gluconeogenesis
4) formation of many important chemical compounds in the carb. meta.
glucose + fructose
glucose + galactose
glucose + glucose
the conversion of certain AAs or lactic acids into glucose
fat metabolism
1) oxidation of fatty acids to supply energy
2) formation of most lipoproteins
3) synthesis of cholesterol and phospholipids
4) conversion of carbohydrates and proteins into fat
~ 80 % of the cholesterol is converted into?
bile salts
energy yield of triglycerides
9 Cal/g
energy yield of carbohydrates
4 Cal/g
protein metabolism
1) deamination of AAs
2) formation of urea
3) formation of plasma proteins
4) interconversions among the different AAs and other compounds
1) removal of the amino group from the AA
2) essential to use AAs
3) forms large amounts of ammonia
ammonia is also formed by?
bacteria in the GI tract
the way to remove ammonia is by?
uria formation
if ammonia [ ] increased = hepatic coma and death
Cori cycle
the recycling of lactic acid produced by muscle during anaerobic metabolism.
The LA is converted to glucose by the liver.
90 % of all plasma proteins are formed in ?
liver can synthesize non-essential AAs by using?
the liver also stores
1) vitamin A
2) vitamin D
3) vitamin B12
4) iron
the liver forms a large proportion of the blood substances used in blood coagulation like
1) fibrinogen
2) prothrombin
3) coag. factors 5,7,8,9,10,11,12,13
liver is one of the major route to excrete
Calcium into the bile to the feces