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14 Cards in this Set

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Female Gross anatomy
Uterus:
*Body
1. Endometrium
(Endometriosis- fragments of tissue lining the uterus migrate to other areas such as oviducts or ovaries)
2. Myometrium- muscular portion
* Fallopian tubes (oviducts)
1. Fimbriae- covering the ovaries
(Ectopic pregnancy- embryo implants outside the uterus)
(Tubal Ligation)
* Ovary
*Certix (cervical cancer and Pap smear)
*Vagina
A spermatozoan moving through the female
A spermatozoan ejaculated into the female reproductive tract must move through the cervix and uterus before it can fertilize an ovulated egg that has been moved from the ovaries into the uterine tube by the combined actions of fimbrial contractions and the oviduct's "ciliary escalator"
Early Embryonic Stage:
Wolffian Duct-->
Mullarian Duct -->
- Male (turns into epididymus and vas deferens)
- Female (turns into the uterine duct)
Female External Anatomy
- opening of urethra
- mons pubis
- clitoris (female equivalent to glans penis)
- labia minora
- labia majora
- hymen
- opening of vagina
*The external genitalia of the female accommodate the reproductive processes at the time of sexual intercourse and at the time of birth. The tract is somewhat protected from invasion by pathogenic organisms by an acidic mucus.
Oogenesis
oogenia--> (mitosis and differentiation) --> primary oocyte --> (1st meiotic division, begins in utero, completed prior to ovulation) --> secondary oocyte --> (2nd meiotic division, completed after fertilization)--> Ovum
Ovary
* Ovarian Ligament:
microanatomy:
- Graafian follicles
- Estrogen production by follicular cells: Thecal cells (covering), Granulosa cells
- Zona pellucida
- Ovum
- Antrum
The two-stage model of estrogen synthesis holds that androgen precursors are synthesized in the outer layer (theca cells) of the ovarian follicles and diffuse to the inner layer (granulosa cells) for converion to estrogens
LH-- theca cells synthesize androgens -->
FSH- granulosa cells convert androgens to estrogen
Summary of the hormonal control of ovarian function during the follicular phase
hypothalamus secreted GnRH --> Anterior pituitary secretes FSH and LH --> LH: stimulates theca cells to produce androgens. FSH: stimulates the conversion of androgens into estrogen, also influences oocytes and inhibin production. --> reproductive and other organs respond to estrogen
Stages of the follicle
1. developing follicle
2. mature follicle
3. ovulating follicle
4. corpus luteum:
- stimulated by LH
- produces progesterone (maintains the uterine wall and lets embryo develop)
5. Corpus albicans
- spent and inactive corpus luteum
The menstrual cycle
- on average is a 28 day cycle
- considerable variability in length
- on average ovulation occurs on the 14th day
Ovarian events/ menstrual cycle
Follicular Phase: bleeding starts--> multiple follicles develop--> dominant follicle selected --> dominant follicle matures--> ovulation occurs.
Luteal Phase: ovulation occurs--> corpus luteum functions (progesterone)--> corpus luteum degenerates
Ovulation
- ovulation is provoked by a surge in LH and marks the transition to the luteal phase of the cycle; characterized by high levels of progesterone
- eventually, a decrease in LH leads to luteolysis, and the withdrawl of steroid support for a thick, active uterus
- Small increases in the secretion of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) lead to follicular maturation, including an increase in the synthesis and secretion of ovarian steroid hormones.
- the feedback relationship between the ovarian steroid hormones and secretion from the hypothalamus/anterior pituitary gland reverses in mid-cycle, eliciting the large, ovulatory surge in LH.
Uterine phase of ovulation
menstual --> proliferative --> secretory --> menstrual
Ovarian phase of ovulation
Follicular--> Luteal