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158 Cards in this Set

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Qualitative change
Stage theorists (Piaget, Kohlberg, Erikson) propose that development is continuous- periods of little change alternate with periods of abrupt change. Believe children who do not master stage-specific tasks are at risk for developmental problems.
Differences between adults and children are QUALITATIVE rather than quantitative.
Quantitative change
Theorists (such as Robbie Case) who are proponents of the information processing approach argue development is continuous with new skills & abilities developing gradually and uniformly over time. Difference between adults and children in term soft thinking are QUANTITATIVE.
Genetic & Environmental influences
Genetic = heredity, the inborn genetic endowment that a person receives from their parents. Environmental is outside influences, beginning in the womb.
Suggested that environmental affects outcome more significantly in the early years than later (i.e. variability in IQ)
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Approach
Five stages:
1. Microsystem: everyday environment (school, home, work) and bi-directional relationships with parents, teachers, colleagues, etc.
2. MESOsystem: Interactions between the microsystems (home and school, work & friends)
3. EXOsystem: the relationship betwen two or MORE settings, 1 which does not contain the person (spouses workplace)
4. MACROsystem: influence of culture, religion, economy, and political systems.
5. CHRONOsystem: role of the passage of TIME in the person's life.
Normative influences
Those that occur in a similar way for most people:
A. age graded: event that is commonly experienced by people of a particular age (i.e. kindergarten, puberty, retirement)
B. History: Event common to a particular cohort (i.e. Iraq War, Great Depression)
NON-normative influence
an unusual event that has a major impact on the individual's life (birth defect, early death of parent)
Critical period
Specific time during lifespan when it is most sensitive to environmental influences.
Embryonic stage is critical to development of organs, and most vulnerable to teratogens.
LORENZ found ducklings imprinted on him between 12-17 hours after birth followed him even when other ducks became available as models.
Sensitive period
In terms of cognitive and emotional development, "sensitive" period is preferred. During this period, stimulation and learning has more of an impact than it will at any other time (children learn languages best & easily betwen 1-3)
Heredity concepts
Genes and chromosomes transmit hereditary charactersistics. 23 pairs of chromosomes, contains DNA and RNA (role in memory)
genetic makeup of a person, containg both expressed and unexpressed characteristics
Observable characteristics of a person
Gene facts
Of 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 pairs are AUTOSOMES (unrelated to sex). The 23rd pair are sex chromosomes, 1 from father (X or Y), 1 from mother (X).
XX= female, XY= male
Klinefelter's syndrome
Occurs only in men, results from an extra X chromosome (XXY). Tend to be taller, less intelligent (ave IQ = 90)and abnormal development of secondary sex characteristics (partial breasts, small testicles, high voice). Unable to have children.
Down's syndrome
Trisomy 21 (involves three chromosome on chromosome 21)
mental retardation, broad skull, slanted eyes, physical deformities, reduced activity
Turner's syndrome
Occurs only in women and results from missing X chromosome (XO). normal intelligence, but abnormal of secondary sexual characteristics (no menstruation, no ovulation)
Sex-linked recessive disorder. Found predominantly in males, requires frequent transfusions of blood with clotting features.
Sickle-cell anemia
Autosomal recessive disorder found primarily in African-Americans (1:500 with disease, 1:12 carrying gene).
Results in deformed, fragile blood cells than can clog vessels, causing anemia, severe pain, stunted growth, and frequent infections.
Prenatal development
Germinal: from conception- 2 weeks, zygote rapidly divides and implants onto uterine wall.
Emryonic: 2 wks to 8-12 wks, involves rapid development of major organ systems (nervous, respiratory, circulatory, digestive) including eyes, ears and limbs. Most all birth defects happen at this time. Most vulnerable to teratogens, such as medications, virus or radiation.
Fetal: 8-12 wks til birth. Rapid growth and complexity of organs and systems.
Development happens cephalocaudally, from the head down.
Maternal/prenatal Factors in Development
1. Nutrition: malnutrition can be detrimental
2. Alcohol: excessive use can result in FAS (delayed growth, deformities, delayed motor skills, LD, MR, attention problems, restlessness, etc.)
MR, LD and hyperactivity usually persist into adulthood.
3. cocaine: Increased risk of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, low birth weight, neurological problems, & smaller head circumference. Not as alert or responsive emotionally or cognitively. In later years, problems with organization, language skills and emotional attachment.
4. Nicotine: Can result in infant death and low birth weight. In school aged children, effects similar to ETOH abuse during pregnancy.
Sexual Dimorphism
The systematic differences between individuals of different sex in the same species.
One theory suggests hormones influence sex differences in two phases, 1. in early life, organization of nervous system and 2. at puberty.
Humans exhibit LESS sexual dimorphism than other species.
PKU (phenylketonuria)
An inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defective gene that affects metabolism, so that phenylalanine cannot be metabolized. Can result in severe mental deficiency. If detected early, babies can be put on speical phenylalanine-free diet.
1. Moro: extension of arms, legs and fingers, and arching of back in response to being startled
2. Rooting: turning of the head, opening the mouth and begining sucking movements in response to cheek being stroked
3. Babinski: spreading out of toes and twisting foot when the sole is stroked
4. Grasp: makes a firm first around object placed in the hand
Perceptual Development of Touch and Pain
Touch is 1st sense to develop and thought to be most mature during first months of life. Infants may feel pain on 1st day of life and become more sensitive in days after delivery.
Development of Hearing
Well developed at birth and thought to be acute before birth. Newborns have ability to distinguish sounds, i.e. new/familiar speech. Prefers female voices, able to recognize speech as separate class of sounds.
Well developed at birth. Can differentiate between mother's mild, vs. stranger
Vision development
Newborn peripheral vision is narrow, develops rapidly 2-10 weeks. Color perception poor until 4 mos. Acuity is poor, but achieves 20/20 at about 6 mos-2 years. At birth, incapable of binocular vision (depth), develop at about 4-5 mos. Can discriminate mother's face at 1 month.
Cross-modal fluency
the ability to imitate facial expressions, exhibited at 2-3 weeks, involves matching a visual schema of facial expression with proprioceptive-tactile schema of the act that produces the facial expression.
At about 2 mos, social smile emerges and when face is presented.
motor development
6 wks: keeping head erect
2-3 mos: rolling over
6-7 mos: sitting alone
7-8 mos: crawling
7-8 mos: standing with support
11 months: standing alone
11-13 months: 1st step and walking alone
16 mos: walk up stairs
Fairly equivalent among boys and girls. Motor development progresses rapidly during preschool years, including development of gross motor skills
At about 6 or 7, motor sequencing becomes more smooth and accurate.
Brain Development
at birth, 25-35% of adult size. At age 2, about 75%, and at age 5, about 90%. At birth, will contain majority of neurons it will ever have.
Capacity for plasticity.
By 7-8, sensory integration has occured and brain has lateralize functioning. Established handedness and footedness.
By middle childhood, hippocampal development appears complete with capacities for declarative memory emerging in addition to procedural memory.
After age 10, hard to learn new language without accent.
Effects of early physical maturation
Boys: enjoy more positive psychological adjustment, with better scholastic performance, better self image and greater popularity.
Girls: mixed effects, high academic achievement and independence, but lower self esteem, poorer body image and more conflicts with parents. (when they lower academic achievement, become more popular with more positive self image).
Variety of physical abilties gradually decline after middle age. Can be dramatically affected by the environment and lifestyle choices.
maximum lifespan is 110-120 years
Primary aging
the inevitable change in physical and mental processes. Programmed theories (age is genetically controlled) and wear-and-tear theory( daily stressors wear out cells)
Secondary aging
Results of disease, disuse and neglect of the body. may account for most of the deterioration associated with growing old.
Sexual activity & aging
does not diminish with age, likelihood of sexual activity is close to frequency during younger years. If sexually active= remains active into old age.
Men can be sexually active into 70-80's, while women can do so as long as they live.
Main barrier is availability of partner.
Health belief Model
How perceptions of vulnerabiltiy and belifs about illness influence helath behavior. Multicausal and proposed that health behavior resulsts from joint infulence of psychosocial factors, perceived susceptabiltiy to disease, and perceived seriousness of the disease, and well as perceived benefits of preventative action vs. barriers.
Life Expectancy
Women tend to outlive men, Whites outlive non-Whites
Stress & health
A good support network can reduce the risk of emotional distress.
Social Buffer Hypothesis: a person's perception of having an adequate social network.
HOLMES & RAHE's social adjustment scale: Most stressful- death of spouse, divorce, marriage, retirement, death of close friend, foreclosure on home
Stages of Language Development
1. crying
2. cooing (6 wks-3 mos)
3. babbling (6-10 mos)
4. word comprehension (9-10 mos)
5. Echolalia: deliberate imitation of sounds without comprehension (9-10 mos)
6. Holophrasic speech: 1st word comes at about 10-14 mos, uses one word or syllable to express a complete thought i.e. "up"
7. Telegraphic speech: 18-24 mos, putting 2 words together to express on eidea. Vocabulary grows most rapidly between 2 1/2 and 3 years.
the Nativist View
Chomsky hypothesized that children are born with an innate language acquisition device (LAD), "prewiring" for language, so they require only minimal exposure to adult language. Believe that the LAD enables chldren's brain to analyze the language that they hear and make sense of its rules of grammar and syntax. Children generally learn their native language in the same sequence, without formal instruction.
the Nurturist View
Language acquired by interacting with the environment, through a process of imitation and reinforcement. They make random sounds, and repeat only those that are reinforced.
the Interactionist View
Language development results from the combination of nature and nurture. Children have an inborn mechanism for acquiring language, inlfuence by biological and cognitive maturation, as well interaction with the environment.
Parents speak slowly totheir infants, in simple statements, using small words and high-pitched voice. Known as "child directed speech".
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Speakers of different languages actually think differently because of the structure of their language- language influences how we think.
Difficulties in reading or a reading disorder. People have difficulty matching speech sounds with written words.
PREVALENCE:3-20% of school population, with equal commonality between boys and girls. May have a genetic component. More common in children from lower SES and larger families.
Deep Dyslexia
Person mistakenly reads a given word as one with a SIMILAR meaning (i.e. person read "coat" instead of "jacket")
Surface Dyslexia
person cannot recognize words, instead, sounds them out. irregular words, such as "come", are mispronounced (i.e. sounds different than similarly spelled words, like "home" or "dome")
Phonological Dyslexia
person cannot read non-word aloud, i.e. "squilfish"
Otherwise, reading is near perfect
Misreading the first or last half of the word i.e. reading "slap" as "slit"
Cognitive Psychology
Views people as active, growing beings and as doers who actively construct their world. Two major theories are Piaget and Information Processing Approach.
Piaget's Stage Theory
Used an "Idiographic" approach, the intensice study of a few children.
Believed chldren have an innate capacity for adapting to the environment. Child's intellect is different than adult and people progress through distinct specific STAGES in cogntive and intellectual development.
Central to this theory is "EPIGENESIS", that growth and development occur in a series of stages, each built on the successful mastery of the previous stage.
Piaget's Basic Principles of Cognitive Development
1. Organization
2. Adapatation: a)assimilation b)accomodation
3. Equilibration
the development of increasingly comples systems of knowledge. People organize their knowledge as mental representations of reality, in order to help makes sense of their experiences "schemata". An organized pattern of behavior that people use as a guide for thinking about or acting in a particular situation.
The way a person deals with new information, involves changes to the person's schemata to enhance the ability to survive through 2 processes:
A) Assimilation
B) Accomodation
They work together to pruduce cognitive growth
The porcess of taking in new experience and incorporating it into existing cognitive structures. i.e. child sees plane and calls it a "bird", assimilating the new experience (plane) into an existing schemata (bird)
Adjusting to reality demands by reorganizing or modifying the existing schema. i.e. Creating a NEW schema for "planes".
Describes the need for and striving towards equilibration or balance between the person and the outside environment, as well as among the person's schemata. This need determines the extent to which they use assimilation or accomodation to organize experiences.
For example, if a child doesn't understand a new situation using their current schemata, they accomdation, develop new patterns and restore equilibrium.
Piaget's 4 Stages
common that the rate which children moves through stages is different, and to have DECALAGE or unevennes.
1. Sensorimotor: object permanence, symbolic representation
2. Preoperational: intuitive thinking, egocentrism, phenomenalistic causality, animism, irreversability, centration
3. Concrete operational: operational thought, conservation
4. Formal Operational: metacognition
Sensorimotor Stage
Birth-2 yrs (until language acquisition), primary learning through sensory observation and gaining control of motor functions through activity, exploration, and manipulation of the environment
Object permanence
A critical accomplishment during the sensorimotor stage.
The ability to understand that objects continure to exist independent of the child's involvement with them. Maintain a mental imagge (representation) even when the object is not present. Relates to the development of Stranger Anxiety and Separation Protest.
Symbolic Representation
With the emergence of language near the end of the sensorimotor stage, the child becomes more capable of symbolic representation.
Pre-Operational Stage
2-7 yrs
Characterized by increased use of symbols and language
Intuitive Thinking
(Preoperational stage): thinking and reasoning are intuitive- children are unable to think logically and deductively
children are unable to take the perspective of the other person.
Phenomenalistic Causality
A type of magical thinking in which events that occur together are thought to cause one another
Endowing physical objects with psychological attributes such as feelings or intentions.
Inability to mentally undo something. Example: a ball of clay rolled into shape of log, child cannot imagine the log returning to original shape.
Tendency to focus on one aspect of a problem at a time. Example: child may have trouble understanding that their mother is also a sister- think they can only be mother OR sister, but not both.
Concrete Operational Stage
7-11 yrs: child can opreate and act on real or imagined concrete objects
Operational Thought
Egocentric thought is replaced by operational thought, which permits attending to a wide array of information. Now uses a logical thought process and can SERIALIZE (place objects in order according to one or more dimensions). Able to reason and FOLLOW RULES.
the ability to recognize the even though shape and form might change, objects still conserve other characteristics.
Formal Operational Stage
11-16 yrs: Characterized by ability to apply opperations to abstract concepts in addition to concrete objects.
Capable of hypothetical thinking ("what if?") and deductive reasoning ("If...then").
Deductive reasoning is based on FACTS. Inductive reasoning involves the abiltiy to GENERALIZE (uniquely human).
Acquires ABSTRACT REASONING, needed to comprehend algrebra and manipulating symbols.
Ability to think about their thinking, explore personal values and compare with others. Not all adolescents enter this stage, and some people never enter this stage.
Piaget Criticisms
Performance is sensitive to contextual influences. When tasks are simplified or more familiar, children perform better. May have underestimated children's abilities. Cultural and educational influences not fully addressed.
Develop of new knowledge based on the foundation of previous learning and interacting with object and events in the environment. In schooling, emphasis placed on student, rather than the teacher (facilitator to assist students to construct their own concepulatizations and solutions to problems).
Piaget & Peers
Peers are highly infuential in cognitive development. Through interaction with peers, child confronted with different worldviews and may recognize their worldview may be not viable. Parents are too congitively advance and removed intellectually to play much of a role in this.
Vygotksy's Social Development Theory of Cognition
Cognitive development results from social itneraction. all higher cognitive functions (language, thinking, memory) begin within the relationships the child has with other. These are later internalized. Example: a child narrating their actions would be viewed as neccesary to internalize. Vygotksy thought development was too complex to divide into stages. He emphasized the influence of adults.
Zone of Proximal Development
The distance between what the child can do independently and what the child can do with adult guidance or peer collaboration. Instruction should be targeted toward this zone- a developmental level just above the child's current level.
Teachers adjust their level of help based on the child's performance. Example: teacher may talk the child through atask, until the child is able to complete the task on their own.
Reciprocal Teaching
The dialogue between the teacher and students. For example,they may discuss various problem-solving strategies for math rather the teacher presenting the "correct" strategy.
Information Processing
Focuses on quantitative changes that occur more smoothely, continuously, and gradually over the life span. Differences across age groups are explained by differences in experience and knowledge. IPT sees enhanced cogntive capacities of adolescent as resulting from larger foundation of information, better skills in discerning ISOMORPHS (recognizing how a new problem resembles an old familiar problem), more thorough scanning, flexible use o flearning strategies, and enhanced abilities to self-monitor.
Transfer Processing
To place the problem in the context of what they know, be better able to handle confusion of new vocabulary, unfamiliar subjects, or new ideas.
Elkind's Adolescent Thinking
Although adolescents are capable of sophisticated problem solving, their thinking can also be immature, resulting from inexperience with abstract thought. Behaviors typical of adolescents include finding fault with authoritative figure, arguementativeness, indecisiveness, hypocrisy, self-consciousness, and sense of invulnerability.
Personal Fable
(Elkind) Adolescent's belief that they are "special" and rules of conduct do not apply to them. They think they are invulnerable.
Imaginary Audience
Adolescents operate under the assumption that everyone is thinking about the same thing that they are, specifically, THEMselves. Commonly characterized by extreme self-consciousness. The self-consciousness frequently involves an "imaginary audience" or a person/people only present in the adolescent's mind. They believe these people are as concerned with their appearance or behavior as the adolescent is.
Crystallized Intelligence
The practical and overlearned skills that are predominantly verbal. Appears to remain INTACT WITH AGING and may improve overall. On the WAIS-III, older adults find Vocab, Info, and Comprehension the easiest. Word knowledge and naming skills show MINIMAL decline, while speech comprehension and fluency DECREASE with age.
Fluid Intelligence
the capacity for problem solving in novel situations. Believed to peak in adolescence and gradually decline with age.
On the WAIS-III, performance subtests are experienced as most difficult, showing decline in 30-40's.
Classic Aging Pattern
Shows a decline in performance skills, with verbal skills remaining intact. Cognitive speed clearly decline with age, this slowing may better explain the discrepancy between verbal and performance subtest scores. Trend in better performance when dealing with familiar or simple stimuli, vs. impairment with unfamiliar, novel or complex stimuli.
Attention & Aging
Older adults tend to do well on simple tasks, but show problems with complex tasks, such as paying attention to more than one source of information.
Higher=order Cognitive Processes
Older adults don't do as well as younger adults with problem-solving, reasoning, conceptualization, and planning in controlled conditions, but outperform young adults in everyday, real-world environment.
Memory & Aging
In short term memory, Primary Memory (the passive "holding tank" for small amounts of information) remains intact, while Working Memory (holding & manipulating informatioN) declines with age.
In long term memory, episodic (what you ate for breakfast) shows the most decline with age. Semantic memroy (memory for facts or meanings) and procedural memory (motor skills i.e. riding a bike) remain intact.
theories of memory & aging
Hypothesized that memory problems are due to problems with ENCODING and RETRIEVAL of information, with retrieval being most signficant. Elderly seem less efficiant and less precise. Show significantly more problems with recall as compared to recognition. May be due to atrophy of the hippocampus, decreased activity of AcH, Serotonin and Catelcholamines, and toxic effects of endogenous amino acids.
Moral Development Theorists
PIAGET'S Theory of Moral Development
Moral development is linked to cognitive development. children makes sounder moral judgments when they posses the cognitive ability of being able to see things from more than 1 perspective.
Heteronomous Morality
(Piaget) Morality of Constraint: the first stage (ages 5-10), egocentric children think rigidly about moraltiy, children cannot imagin emore than one of looking at moral issue. Rules are decided upon by authority figures, cannot be changed, must be followed without questions and any offense deserves punishment (unless they are the offenders)
Autonomous Morality
(Piaget) Morality of Cooperation (ages 10+) characterized by flexibility. Children have interacted with others and experienced a wide range of viewpoints. There is not one unchangable standard of right/wrong, they can consider more than on easpect of the siutation and the intent behind behavior. Rules are flexible, agreed upon by others, and can be changed if neccesary.
KOHLBERG'S Theory of Moral Development
Also thought how people think about moral issues reflects cognitive development. People arrive at judgments on their own, rather than internalizing parental or societal standards.
3 general stages, with 2 substages each.
Preconventional: punishment-obedience; instrumental hedonism
Conventional: good boy/girl; Law & order
Postconventional: Morality of contract, individual right, or democratically accepted laws; morality of indiviudal principles of conscience.
Pre-convetional Morality
(Age 4-10) emphasizes COMPLIANCE WITH RULES to avoid punishment and get rewards. Judgment is Self-Centered and people act out of Self Interest.
PUNISHMENT-OBEDIENCE: avoid punishment
INSTRUMENTAL HEDONISM: obedience to rules will get rewards
Conventional Morality
(Age 10+) conforming to rules to get approval from others. Authoritative standards are itnernalized, and people want to be seen as "good". Self center to other-centered.
GOOD BOY/GIRL ORIENTATION: gaining approcal through obedience
LAW & ORDER:focus on doing one's duty and maintaining social order
Post-conventional Morality
(Age 13+ or Never) Recognition that there are conflicts between moral or socially accepted standards. Decisions based on what's right, fair or just.
MORALITY OF CONTRACT, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS OR DEMOCRATICALLY ACCEPTED LAWS: emphasizes will of the majority & welfare of society
MORALITY OF INDIVIDUAL PRINCIPLES OF CONSCIENCE: based on individual belief of what is right, regardless of legal restrictions or opinion of others, they act in accordance with internalized standards.
Criticisms of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral development
Lacks cultural sensitivity, and biased toward Western indvidualistic view (individual conscience over societal demands)
Gilligan criticized Kohlberg for giving higher moral place to traditional Male values than to "traditional" female values.
GILLIGAN'S approaches to Moral Reasoning
JUSTICE perspective: males prefer justice, which emphasizes fairness
CARING perspective: dilemna in females is conflict of own needs versus needs of others. Women think less about abstract jsutice/fairness than men, and think more about responsibilities to specific people
Gilligan's Moral Development for Women
1. ORIENTATION OF INDIVIDUAL SURVIVIAL: concentrates only on what's best for her
2. GOODNESS AS SELF-SACRIFICE: woman sacrifices her own wishes to meet others' wants and needs. What others think of her is central.
3. MORALITY OF NONVIOLENCE: Believes no one should be hurt (including self), and able to experience moral equality between herself and other, which affects decision making.
Found development of conscience is related to early temperament as well as parenting styles. Found development of conscience in later children was positively + correlated with high inhibitory control and low impulsivity in early childhood. Parenting style that involves mutual positive affect between mother and child, lower power assertion by mother, and maternal empathy.
Organized around the libido theory. Phases of corresponded to successive shifts in the investment of sexual energy to areas of the body assoicated with eroticism. ORAL; ANAL; PHALLIC; LATENCY; GENITAL.
ERIKSON'S theory of personality development
Accepted Freud's theory but saw developmental potentials in all phases of life. Successful negotiation of each development ask results in specific strengths.
Freud's Personality stages
1st year: Oral
Age 1-3: Anal
Age 3-5/6: Phallic
Age 5/6-12: Latency
Age 12+: Genital
Erikson's Psychosocial stages
1st year: Trust vs. mistrust (hope)
Age 1-2: autonomy vs. shame & doubt (will)
Age 3-5/6: initiative vs. guilt (purpose)
Age 5/6-12: industry vs. inferiority (competence)
Age 12-18: identity vs. role confusion (fidelity)
Age 18-35: intimacy vs. isolation (love)
Age 35-60: generativity vs. stagnation (care)
Age 60+: integrity vs. despair (wisdom)
MAHLER'S stages of development
Separation is the process of becoming a discrete physical entity of by physically distancing.
Mahler's Stages of Development
1. Normal infantile autism: in 1st month, baby is unaware of the external world (not supported by research)
2. Symbiosis (2-4 mos): baby feels he & mother are one
3. Differentiation (5-10 mos): child is able to distinguish between self and others [stranger anxiety]
4. Practicing (10-16 mos): discovers the ability to physcially separate the self from mother [separation anxiety]
5. rapprochement (16-24 mos): increased need for mother to share the child's new skills & experiences, great need for love
6. Object constancy (2-3 yrs): ability to maintain the image of the mother when she is not present, unify the good and bad into a whole representation.
Levinson's Theory
A Season of a Man's Life: development proceeds through alternating periods of transition and stability. Based theory on interviews with 40 professional men. Criticized for excluding lower SES and women. The role of women is to fulfill her husband's dream, when she is no longer needed by husband and family, she can form her own identity.
Season of a Man's Life
1. Early Adult Transition: 17-22, change the sense of self developed during childhood and starts to make tentative choices about life as an adult.
2. Entering the World of Work: 22-28, consolidates choices made earlier.
3. Age 30 Transition: establishing patterns of adult life, include possible reconsidering of choices made before. Stressful if they feel they have little time left to establish their life
4. Settling Down: 33-40, settled into commitments
5. Mid Life Transition: 40-45, change in perspective from "time from birth" to "time left to live"
6. Middle adulthood: 45-50, may make major adjustments as a result of changes in perspective from that of early adulthood.
7. Age 50 Transition:
8. Late adulthood: preparing for retirement, death, etc.
LORENZ Attachment Theory
Nonhuman prinates demonstrate attachment behavior patterns that are instinctual. IMPRINTING, certain stimuli are capable of elciting innate bahvior patterns during a CRITICAL period. Ducklings imprinted on him betwen 12-17 hours after birth and continued to follow him even with other ducks available as models.
HARLOW Attachment Theory
1950's studies showed monkeys raised by wire and terry-cloth surrogate mothers, preferred the terry cloth. Even if fed by wire mothers, monkeys ran to terry cloth for security when frightened. Described as CONTACT COMFORT, importance of pleasurabl etactile sensation as a contributor to this behavior.
Also found that monkeys left in isolation during first few months of life showed abnormal and autistic-like social and sexual behaviors. Behaviors remitted when placed with normal monkeys, but not completely.
BOWLBY Attachment Theory
Formulated attachment theory and suggested a Darwinian evolutionary basis for attachment theory, to ensure that parents protect their helpless young.
Maternal Deprivation Syndrome: 1. Protest: child cries, calls out and searches for lost parent; 2. Despair: feeling hopeless that mother will ever return; 3. Detachment: child emotionally separates from mother and responds in an indifferent manner when mother returns.
Anaclytic Depression
Rene Spitz: describes the syndrome of weepiness, withdrawal, insomnia, decline of health and affect found in babies deprived of maternal attention between 6-8 months old.
AINSWORTH Attachment Theory
Relationship between infant and caregiver begins at brith abd becomes increasingly important in the second half of the 1st year, corresponding to development of stranger and separation anxiety. By 1 years old, quality of attachment can be measured using the Stange Situation Procedure.
Secure Attachment
65% of babies are warm and responsive. When exposed to a stranger, the baby seeks closeness and comfort, shows moderate distress upon separation and greets mother with enthusiasm on return. Associated wtih sensitive and responsive caring parenting style.
Avoidant Attachment
20% of babies, do not seek closeness or contact with mother, treats mother like astranger, rarely cries when she leaves, and ignores her upon return. Parenting style is aloof, distant, or intrusive with overstimulation.
Ambivalent (Resistant) Attachment
10% of babies, clingy and becomes upset when mother leaves the room. When she returns, they are happy and reestablish contact, but may show ambivalence by kicking, squirming, or crying. They do litte exploring and are ambivalent towards stranger and mother. Parenting style is inconsistent and insensitive.
Disorganized-disoriented Attachment
Exhibit no clear strategy in dealing with the mother. They may be unresponsive, or avoid and resist the mother upon return. Most striking is their fear and confusion towards mother. The least secure pattern of attachment and commonly associated with abuse of the infant or unresolved abuse issues in the caregiver.
Secure vs. Insecurely Attached Children
Differ emotionally and behaviorally in preschool and grade school. Construct is fairly valid and reliable, as 2 yr olds develop stronger sense of self-efficacy. More secure show more competent autonomous function and are neither victims or victimizers. Insecure children assume these roles.
Attachment in older children
children can make attachments after 1st year of life and can be of equal intensity and quality. Adopted children can make healthy attachments even in late childhood.
Authoritarian Parenting
(Baumrind) Expect unquestioned obedience, are demanding, controlling, threatening, and punishing. Tend to be more detached and less warm.
Children are frequently moody, irritable, discontented, withdrawn, distrustful, and aggressive, and have more behavior disorders.
Permissive Parenting
(Baumrind) Parents value self-expression and self-regulation. Permissive-indifferent set few limits, provide little monitoring, are generally detached and uninvolved. Children have poor self-control, demanding, minimally compliant and have poor interpersonal skills.
Permissive-indulgent parents are loving and emotionally available bu set few limtis, demands or controls. Children are impulsive, immature, and out of control ("impulsives"/ impulsive-aggressive")
Authoritative Parenting
Parent are caring and emotionally available, yet firm, fair and reasonable. Set appropriate limtis and provide structure with reasonable expectations. Children are competent, confident, independent, cooperative and at ease in social situations. ("energetic-friendly/ "energetic friendly self-reliant")
Working Mothers
Inconsistencies in research.
Children tend to have more egalitarian views of sex roles. In cognitive development, middle class daycare boys have slightly lower academic performance than those whose mothers do not work. Lower class boys in daycare do better academically than those who stay at home.
No danger in healthy attachment in babies in daycare before three months.
Daycare kids tend to be more sociable, self-confident and persistent, but more bossy, less polite, less obedient, and more aggressive.
Gay & Lesbian Parents
Children are as well adjusted as those with heterosexual parents. Rate of homosexuality is same as general population (5-10%)
Single Parents
Most consistent finding is lower levels of academic achievement, largely due to low family income or poverty.
Sex vs. Gender
Sex is the biological status of being male or female.
Gender is the cultural and individual meaning that are attached the status of being male or female.
Stage of Gender Role Development
Gender Roles: Societal expectations for appropriate male/female behavior. Begins to develop at birth & throughout life.
Gender Identity: Individual's perception of him/herself as male/female. @ 18 mos, emergence of objective self, and gender identity is usually achieved by age 3.
Gender Constancy: Attainment of the recognition that gender does not change with dress or behavior (age 5-6)
Theories of Gender Roles Development
Social Learning Theory
Cognitive Developmental Theory
Gender Schema Theory
Psychoanalytic Theories
Social Learning Theory & Gender Role Development
Children acquire gender roles through process of imitation and reinforcement.
Cognitive Developmental Theory (Gender Role)
[Kohlberg] thinking process is the key force. Children first develop a conept of gender, then gender constancy. Cognitive attainment of gender constancy motivates them to be "proper" boys/girls.
Gender Schema Theory
Most accepted theory. Children use gender as a schema to organize their world. (uses both social learning and cognitive processes.) Girls plays with dolls, sees other girls doing same, is praised by mother -> has schema for Girls, knows she belongs in this schema.
Psychoanalytic Theory of Gender Role Development
Emphasizes the Oedipus Complex [guilt & anxiety about sexual attraction to other-sex parent is resolved by identifying by identifying with same-sex parent]. Argues
"biology is destiny".
Racial Awareness
Between ages 3 & 4, children become aware of differences baesd on race/ethnicity. Relaize that color difference have social meaning. Begin to exhibit preference for same-race playmates.
Social Play
1. Solitary Play: plays alone with different toys and no effort to engage others in play
2. Parallel Play: Plays independently but next to other children, using similar toys.
3. Associative Play: interacts with other children and shares toyd, but acts she he wishes and does not adopt any roles.
4. Cooperative Play: Part of group that has common goal, takes on a role and supplements efforts of the group.
Cognitive Play
1. Repetitive Play: simple repetitive muscular movements
2. constructive play: uses materials to construct or create something
3. imaginative play: involves fantasy and drama, taking on pretend roles. Crucial role in allowing children to try out new roles and master difficult feelings.
4. Formal Games with Rules: Development and adherence to rules while playing games varies with children's ages.
In preschool, children with same and opposite sex children. Later, children tend to play more with same sex peers. Girls tend to be more concerned with quality of friendships, while boys emphasize number of friends.
Delinquency & Aggression
nature of children's interaction with parents influence social adjustment and study showed to the single factor that accounted for delinquency.
Incidence for boys from unhappy, intact homes > than from "broken homes."
Patterson's Coercion Model of Aggression
1. Children learn to be aggressive by observing coercive and antisocial behavior in parents. Poor parenting reinforces coercive behavior on child's part and escalating cyle ensues.
2. child with conduct problems experience academic failure and peer rejection.
3. child experiences a depressed mood and more likely to join a group of deviant peers.
16% of students report being bullied. Girl tend to use or receive verbal or psychological bullying. Most severe forms happen outside of school where there is less adult protection. Bullies are insecure and have low self esteem. Aggressive behavior before 8 is more likely to be involved in violent behavior.
Victims are at risk for violent behavior, depression and low self esteem. conditions of victims: behaviors that encourage bullying (crying, submissiveness) and peer rejection.
Rosenthal Effect
Teacher's expectations have an impact on students' academic performance. When teachers have high expectations of student, they tend to perform better than when little is expected.
Teacher Interactions
Female and male teachers tend to interact more with male students, tend to be more negative or critical.
Teaches frequently praise females for effort and cooperation, while they praise males more often for ability and achievement.
Marcia's Identity Formation
4 categories, each differ in terms of crisis and commitment.
1. identity achievement
2. foreclosure
3. mortorium
4. identity diffusion
Identity Achievement (Marcia)
Actively struggled with and explored several options then developed own set of goals and values. Resolved the crisis and made a commitment.
Foreclosure (Marcia)
Committed to a goal without exploring other options. Tends to accept ready-made goal by an authority figure. Absence of crisis, but committment is made. Ex. parents are physicians, so I will be a physician.
Moratorium (Marcia)
Not yet made a defintite decision and still struggling and exploring interests & needs.Still in crisis, with no committment (outcome usually is resoluation of crisis with committment)
Identity Diffusion (Marcia)
lacks direction, not committed to goals and values, and not seriously considering goals or exploring options. Crisis and committment are absent, person is an aimless drifter.
Theories of successful aging
Activity: old age is fulfilling when you're active & involved
Disengagement: Natural & graceful withdrawal from life roles (largely discredited)
gender & cultural variables
Older men have more social status, income and sexual partners. Women have more friends, more involved with family, but lower incomes and status. (Elderly females = lowest income level)
Kubler-Ross Stages
Easy: 40% of babies, regular, adaptable, mildly intense that is positive & responsive
Difficult: 10% of babies, moody, easily frustrated, tense and overreact to most situations.
Slow to Warm Up: 15% of babies, mild in response, somewhat shy and withdrawn, need time to adjust to new experiences or people.
Goodness of Fit
Influence on development is goodness of fit between child's temperament and environment.
Emotional Expression
Babies display 3 states: distress, contentment, or interest. 6+ months, babies display more emotions and even pout or smile to get their way.
Social Referencing: 1 yr, use cues from another person to deal with affective uncertainty.
Risk Factors in Development
3 categories:
1. individual level (genes, temperament)
2. family level (child abuse)
3. community level (poverty, discrimination)
Biological risks (lack of prenatal care, higher rates of prenatal exposure to drugs & ETOH, poor nutrition)
50% greater risk for pre/post natal infant deaths. Parenting and attachments problems.
Maternal Substance Abuse
Prenatal risks of teratogens (cocaine, ETOH, smoking)
-Poor nutrition, inadequate prenatal care.
- disorganization & chaos, + multiple caregivers