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24 Cards in this Set

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Define Genotype vs. Phenotype
Genotype - characteristics determined by genes vs.
Phenotype - observable, measurable characteristics resulting from a combo of genes & environment
What does the term reaction range refer to?
genes set a range for the development of a trait (rather than one specific level of expression of the trait)
Define Critical vs. Sensitive periods
critical period - a limited time during which a behavior can develop vs.
Sensitive period - the optimal time for a behavior to develop (although it can develop later)
What is Piaget's theory of Conservation? (give examples)
the ability to recognize that fundamental properties don't change (i.e. mass, length, number)
What are the major contrasts between Behavioral vs. nativist vs. cognitive theories of language development?
Behavioral - focus on environmental factors of learning (i.e. motherese)
Nativist - we're born with a language acquisition device (a schema or set of schemas)
cognitive - language acquisition occurs alongside cognitive development
Name Piaget's four stages and ages for each
Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years)
Preoperational (2-7 years)
Concrete Operational (7-12 yrs)
Formal Operational (12 onward)
What are the major developments in Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage?
a child learns through sensory info (look, feel, sound, taste) and motor activity (grasping/ hitting) Object permanence and deferred imitation are achieved
What are the major developments in Piaget's Preoperational Stage?
Symbolic thought expands, resulting in increased language, pretend play, and sociodramatic play.
What are the major developments in Piaget's Concrete Operational Stage?
Logical thought develops, concepts grasped include: decentration (being able to focus on more than one detail), reversibility (understanding that actions can be reversed) and conservation (fundamental properties ie. mass, number, don't change), transitivity (being able to mentally sort objects) Hierarchical classification (sorting objects into hierarchies of groups)
What are the major developments in Piaget's Formal Operational Stage?
Abstract thought develops ie. hypothetical-deductive reasoning, propositional thought (evaluating verbal assertions)
What is deferred imitation?
being able to imitate an observed act at a later point in time (Piaget, Sensorimotor stage)
What limits the preoperational child (Piaget)?
Egocentricity (everyone experiences the world as the child does), magical thinking (the child has control over objects & events), and animism (objects have thoughts/feelings),
What are the four signs of attachment, and when do they peak?
Social Referencing
Separation anxiety
Stranger anxiety
Response to prolonged separation
What is Social Referencing and when does it begin
reading the emotional reaction of caregivers i.e. child will cross visual cliff if mother is calm and smiling Begins 6 months
What is Separation Anxiety, when does it begin and when does it peak?
distress at separation from caregiver begins 6 months, peaks 14-18 months
What is Stranger anxiety, when does it begin and when does it peak?
negative reaction to strangers, begins 8-10 months, peaks at 18 months
What is a toddler's typical response to prolonged separation?
At 15-30 months, babies protest, exhibit despair and sometimes detachment
Name the four types of Child Attachment and the theorists who documented them
Ainsworth & Main
Secure Attachment
Anxious/Avoidant
Anxious/Resistant
Disorganized/Disoriented
Name the four types of Adult Attachment
Secure-autonomous
Dismissing
Preoccupied
Unresolved
gender differences in peer relations
boys exhibit "restrictive style" i.e. bragging, contradicting, interrupting and are more interested in sharing activities/interests ..... Girls exhibit "enabling " style with emmphasis on intimacy and equality and emotional aspect of friendships
Heteronomous vs Autonomous stages of morality (also name theorist)
Piaget
Heteronomous morality in children ages 4 - 7 rules are absolute and unchangeable, severity of consequences indicate severity of act
Autonomous ages 7 or 8 and older, rules are agreements between individuals and therefore adjustable
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development name & describe 3 levels
Preconventional - morality based on consequences of an act
Conventional - desire to maintain existing social laws, rules (first family's then society')
Postconventional - morality in terms of self-chosen principles
3 key assumptions of Kohlberg's theory
1. children pass through stages in sequence 2. moral development occurs when one notices that one's morality does not fully account for reality 3. at each stage, the type of moral thinking is pervasive
Gilligan's critique
Kohlberg's theory is male biased because it emphasizes justice & fairness vs. interpersonal connectedness and care