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43 Cards in this Set

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Simple diffusion
The net movement of dissolved particles down their concentration gradient from a region of higher concentration to lower conc.
Does NOT require energy
Osmosis
Simple diffusion of water from a region of lower SOLUTE conc. to HIGHER solute conc.
Faciliated diffusion
Net movement of dissolved particles AGAINST their conc. gradient through special channels or carrier proteins.
-does NOT require enery
Active transport
Net movement of dissolved particles AGAINST their conc. gradient with the help of transport proteins.
-REQUIRES energy
Mitosis
Division and distribution of the cell's DNA to its 2 daughter cells such that each cell receives a complete copy of the original genome
Interphase
-90% of the time a cell is in interphase
-each chromosome is replicated
-at the end, chromosomes consist of 2 identical sister CHROMATIDS
-DNA is uncoiled and called chromatin, and is not visible
Prophase
-Chromosomes condense
-Centrioles separate and move towards the opposite poles
-spindle apparatus begins to form
-nuclear membrane dissolves
Metaphase
Fibers of the spindle apparatus attach to each chromatid at the centromere to align the chromosomes at the center of the cell
Anaphase
Sister chromatids separate, as they are pulled towards opposite poles of the cell by the shortening of the spindle fibers (made of microtubules)
Telophase
-Spindle apparatus disappears
-Nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes
-Chromosomes uncoil
Cytokinesis
Cytoplasm divides into 2 daughter cells (cleavage furrow in animal cells) Cell membrane indents and pinches forming 2 cells
What are the differences in mitosis for plant cells?
-Plant cells lack centrioles
-No cleavage furrow, instead divide via cell plate
Meiosis
Produces haploid gametes
Prophase 1
Homologous chromosomes synapse
(tetrad)
-crossing over can occur (recombination)
Metaphase 1
Homologous pairs align and attach to a spindle fiber
Anaphase 1
Homologs separate and are pulled to opposite poles (disjunction)
Telophase 1
-Nuclear membrane forms
-Chromosome still consists of sister chromatids joined at the centromere
Second meiotic division
Very similar to mitosis, except the new cells have a haploid number of chromosome
-in human females, only one of the daughter cells becomes a functional gamete
Fission
DNA replicates, new plasma membrane and cell wall grow inward forming 2 duplicate cells
-occurs in amoebae, paramecia, algae, and bacteria
Budding
Cell membrane pinches inward to form a new cell that is smaller in size but genetically indentical to the parent cell and then grows to adult size
-eg hydra and yeast
Regeneration
Regrowth of a lost or injured body part
-hydra, starfish, salamanders, tadpoles
Spermatogenesis
occurs in the seminiferous tubules
-diploid cells celled spermatogonia undergo meiosis to produce 4 equal haploid sperm
Oogenesis
Occurs in ovaries
-1 diploid primary female sex cell undergoes meiosis to produce 1 mature ovum.
-Each meiotic division produces subsequent polar bodies, which degenerate
Pathway of sperm
SEVEN UP
Seminiferous tubules
Epididymis
vas deferens
ejactulatory duct
nothing
urethra
penis
Menstrual cycle
1.Follicular:FSH increases to cause development of follicle, which then secretes estrogen
2.Ovulation:caused by a surge in LH; mature ovarian follicle burts and releases an ovum,, also a surge in estrogen
Mentsrual cycle part 2
3. Luteal phase:ruptured follicle develops in corpus luteum (which secretes estrogen and progesterone) Endometrium prepares for implantation of embryo
4. Menstruation:no fertilization causes a drop in progesterone and estrogen, menstrual flow occurs
Purines
-mnemonic: Purines are pure silver--AG
Adenine and guanine
Pyrimidines
Cytosine and thymine
DNA replication is ________
Semi-conservative, meaning 1 parent strand and 1 new daughter strand
There exists ___ amino acids, and __ different codons possible
20, 64
-many amino acids have more than 1 codon that specify their formation
3 different kinds of RNA
1. mRNA:carries the complement of a DNA sequence from the nucleus to the ribosomes
2.tRNA:found in the cytoplasm and aids in the translation of mRNAs code to a sequence of amino acids
3.rRNA: structural component of ribosomes (most abundant type) and is synthesized in the nucleolus
Transformation
process by which a foreign chromosome fragment is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome via recombination
Conjugation
Sexual mating of bacteria; used by bacteria that contain sex factors and can join via a cytoplasmic conjugation bridge in order to transfer genetic material
Transduction
occurs when the fragments of the bacterial chromosome accidently become packaged into viral progeny produced during a viral infection
Gene regulation in prokaryotes
-RNA polymerase binds to the promoter to initiate transcription
-if a repressor binds to the operator, no transcription occurs
-if the inducer binds to the repressor w/o binding to the operator, transcription occurs
Viral lytic cycle
-viral DNA takes control of host genetic machinery to replicate
-host cell bursts releasing new virions
-virulent
Viral lysogenic cycle
Viral DNA integrates itself into a host genome in the provirus form and is mostly harmless, but can reemerge and enter lytic cycle as a result of environmental circumstances
Morula
a solid ball of embryonic cells
Blastulation
begins when the morula develops a fluid filled cavity called the blastocoel, which later becomes a hollow sphere of cells called the blastula
Gastrulation
the development if a three layered structure called the gastrula & the 3 primary germ layers
Ectoderm gives rise to:
epidermis, hair, nails, lens of the eye, epithelium, inner ear, brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, adrenal medulla
Mesoderm gives rise to:
integuments(outer covering of internal organs), gonads, kidney, circulatory system, musculoskeletal system
Endoderm gives rise to:
lining of respiratory tract and digestive tract, pancreas, liver, thyroid