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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Marx criminoligist define crime as
violations of historical deturmined rights of individual
appropriate behavior of explicit social explination
measure designed to find future conforminity
will or consincious desire commit act that violates crime law
criminal intent
early 1982 attitudes to juvenile are
criminal law intertwined with political is
conflict theyry
most likely to argue that criminoligist should be commited to power of wealth
conflict theory
values and norms reflected in their society that is shared by all
consensus perspective
defense hat allows a person to act in a particular way
justification- ex. self defense
research method that produces useful understanding?
how indivuduals learn how to commit crime
defense- sell stolen property
stealing a bike becasue someone forced you to do it- justifications. defense of necessity
research that relies on police stats
patterns of crime- deturmined who commits, who is victimized, what are the major dimensions of the criminal act
school of criminology on free will
classical school
classical school
beccaria- thought people were motivated by pain and pleasure, that tey excerised free will, and rationality and responsibility characterized human action. claimed that punishment should be based on the harm that the criminal act did to socitty, rather than the harm incurred by the victim.
assumption of free will
criminal responsible for own crime.
classical school
punnishment should be based on criminal background- what crime does to society
human behavior subject to causal law
positivists claim that human behavior is subject to causal laws
FBI Index crimes part 1
murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcable rape, robbery, aggravated assualt, burglary-breaking or entering, larceny-theaft, motor vehicle theft, arson
reasons people don't report crime
are attempeted rather than completed, involve little or no financial loss of physical injury, do not threaten their sense of personal security, do not seem serious to them, do not involve a fire arm
direct loss of property
def of robbery
taking or attempting to take anything of value from another person by force or threat
def of forcible rap
carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will, including attempts
fear of crime is primarly the fear of
def of carjacking
used firearms or caused minor accidents to get drivers to strop
def of fraud
fraudulent conversion and obtainint money or property by false pretenses
def of larcany
unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession of another, exlluding motor vehicle, embezzlement, con games and forgery
as a nation developes economically, crime increases fastest is
concentric zone theory
model of the urban community, industry develops near the center of the city in order to be at the crossroads of transportation and community. crime rates usually highest in areas that are low income, dilapidated and overcrowed housing, transiency, unimployment, broken familiey, and minority groups
studies facial features- ears of the skull
relationship between the external shape of the skull
criminals were the products of environmental influences on organically inferior people.
body thpes- this theory focuses on differences among individuals in embryonic development and claims that people with different body types have different temperaments that affect their propensity to engatge in crime and deliquent behaviro.- slow soft, mesomorphs- muscular and agressive
billogical research on crime
individuals with certain stregths and weaknesses and theat individual with certain "vulnerabilities" or "risk factors" have a greater probability of responding to stressful envoronmenta conditions with antisocial behavior.
twin studies- concordance rate
criminal behavior between twins found that identical twins were between 60-70 percent in these studies and fraternal twons only 15-30 percent.
sex differences
differ from one society to another. sex differences in crime rates is due to social and cultural factors, but the fact that men commit more crime that women in all societies suggests that some of the difference would be teh result of biological differences between teh xexex. over many genreations that male has been the surviror of the fittest. crime committed more likely to occur in women 4 days prior and 4 days during period
psychological explanations of crime
criminal is someow psychologically abnormal developed early in the 20 centure. the logic of this position is that because only certain people commit crmies, some individual trait must distinguish them from those who do not break the law.
structuralist interpretation of evidence
links iq and delinquency is that this association exists only because of specific responses by institutions such as the school to low levels of intelligentce, low iq score, poor academic performance
.`"thought patterns"
that exist amoung all offenders, whether black from ghetto or rich white.
criminal personality
chronic lying, a view that other people's property is their own, unrelenting optimins
great energy
fear of injury or being insulted
intense anger
an inflexibliity high self-image
exploitative rapists
50 percent- rape is an impulsive and predatory act witht eh victim seen only as an object for sexual gratification. usually spur of the moment. date rape
compensatory rape
25 percent- obsessed with sexual fantisies and feel very inadequate. have fanticies their victim will enjoy rape and fall in love with them
displaced anger rape
20 percent- rape expresses their displaced anger and rage. victim represnets to them a hated woman in their life
sadistic rap
5 percent- sexual feelings are linked to agression for this type, more violent as they become aroused. cromes often premeditated and sometimes involve a compulsive fantasy
brawner rule
a person should be found not guilty of at the time of such conduct as a result of mental disease of mental defect, lacks substantial capacity either to appreciate the criminality of his conduct or to conform his conduct to ther requirements of the law. ability to control that conduct.