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41 Cards in this Set

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retribution
theory proposes that offenders should be punished because they deserve to suffer for the harm they have caused and taht their punishment should be proportional to that harm and to their own blameworthiness
seriousness of crime
seriousness= hamrfulness + blameworthiness
determinate sentencing
use fixed temss of imprisonment,l which can sometimes be reduced by credit for good behavior while incarcerated
truth-in-sentencing
offenders to sercve a certain percentage (usuallt 85) of their sentence in prison
sentencing guidelines
define a range of penalities for offenders of a given degree ofharmfulness committed by offender of a specific degree of blameworthiness- usually measured by their prior record
federal sentencing guidelines
crimes classifiede into forty-three offense levels each of which has a range of prison sentences in terms of months

federal judges then place offender in one of six criminal history categories based on points assigned for prior sentences

next judges consult grid
rehabilitation
any planned intervention focused on the offender that reduces criminal actigvity.

personality, ability, attitudes, values OR behavior
cognitive-behavior program
seek to change what and how offenders think in order to alter their behavioral choices, especially their decision to commit crime

group councling
family intervention
edcuation and work programs
behavior modification
mitieu theorpy- introduces the idea of rehab into all age groups, including relationship between inmates and staff
reintegrating offender into society
seen as enemies,
obligation
acceptance
restorative justice
repair the damage cuased by criminals an dreintegrate both offenders an dvictims into the coummunity
conserative approach
seeks to preserve the status quo from criminals, who are seen as challengers to the social order

conventional crime is attributed to the lower and working classes, who are theought to be improperly socialized or irrersponsible
conservative approach cont.
"family values" but their proposals for reducing crime stress deterrence, incapacitation, and just deserts. call for larger and more efficient police force, higher convictins in court, less probation, more capital punnishment
liberal approach
holds that crime can be reduced by politics that attack its underlying causes.

beleive society can be reformed in ways that will reduce crime, but they reject the idea that a full-scale revolution is requireed

proplse that educational and vocational training, welfare assistance, job opportunities, antidiscrimination laws, and community organization can reduce crime

usually believe that theprimary functio of criminal penalities shoud be rehab
radical approach
crime by both the underprivileged and the privileged and attributes crime by both to the conditions of a capitalist society

"crime problem" is reguarded as a socially defined product of selective crime recording, media attention, and differental treatment by c.j. system

conventional criminals are seen as victims of a sapialisy system rather that as offenders against society
decriminalizing drugs
addicts should be offered treatment rather that prosecution

criminalization of drugs has not stopped drug use

prosecute drug offences could better be used to deal with more serious crimes

leads to secondary crime
situational crime prevention
involves opportunity-reducing measures

directed at highly specific forms of crime

that involve the management, design, or manipulation of the inmediate enviromnent in a systematic and permanent a way as possible

so as to increawse the effort and risks of crime and reduce the rewards as perceived by a wide range of offenders
techniques to increase offenders efforts
target hardening.. locks on steering columns..
tecnhiques that increase offenders risk
entry and exit screening.. border searcher, merchandise tags
techniques that reduce the offenders rewards
target removal- removable car radios, and reduce use of cash..
informal social control
crime might be reduced by increasing informal social control over criminal behavior

emanating form mechanical solidarity, reaction to individuals or small groups. people must be involved... hotline, urban angles
collective conscience
in order to understand the concept of collective conscience one first must understand the concepts of mechanical and organic solidarity
4 major phases
arrest, arrainment, trial/hearing, sentencing
3 main objectves.. Glaser
revenge, restraint and reform. the coordinated objective of the 3 components is deterrence, incapacation, retribution and punnishment
positivist
something wrong with the person. harsh punishment wouldn't be an order
marxist
would try to change system so frimes wouldn't occur
punnishment
any particular disposition or range of permissible dispositions that the law authorizes in cases of persons who have been judged through the distinctive process of the crimal law to be guilty of a crime
functional approach- punnishment
punnishment is essentilaly an instrument of public justice and should be imposed upon those individuals who have breached traditional laws
structural functionalist- punnishment
is justified and should act as a meaningful force to bring individual conformity an dnon-conformity
symbolic interaction- punnishment
punnishment is justified and is utilitarian in two ways..

allows society to rally anround its moral values an dit vitalized its sence of solidarity

when male factors are punnished, society goes on a moreal ofgy, and the recovery from which restores a sence of social equilibrium
4 charactistics of any punnishmet that is implimented after a criminal act takes place
uniforminty, severity, certainty, celerity
celerity
swiftness of punnishment that is implimented after a criminal act takes place
uniformity-
all punnishment is administered in the same way to all individuals
severity
degree of punnishment inpoimented should be commensurate with tehcriminal committed
certainty
for any offence taht is committed, punishment should be implimented absolutly
retribution
over course of time
stolkholm syndromd
individuals who have been kidnapped, pow, inmantes in jail, battered wives... after period of psychological brainwashing capative person begins to identify with the captor.

mechanism
conservatives
see crime as problem and encourage fonformity to standards set by legitimate authority
improvement of family life with better disipline and no moral self
no rehab, stress punnishment
liberal
crime reduced by policies that attach underlying cuases

individuals product of social system
inadequates of infome an dpower

solutions are: education and vocational training, welfare, jobs

if you educati people they will be less discriminated against and reduces poverty
punnishment -liberal-
isn't in vocab of the liberals, suggest taht rehab, not punitive sanctions should be primary function of the c.j.s.
radical
center on crimes committed by under privilaged

visualized crime problem from capital system

white colar and political corruption

disparing in sentencing among s.j.s.

solutions:new alternative social system based upon communism of socialism, as the direct result of wholesale social revolution
solving crime from variety of perspectives
many critics claim that current laws have overstepped their intentions. suggest that victimless crimes such as prostitution, drugs should be decriminalized