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114 Cards in this Set

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Collar (Egypt)
Ancient Egyptians wore collars of jewels and linen around their necks.
Counterweight often used on crowns of ancient civilisations including Egypt and Byzantium.
Gala skirt
Worn by local officials in Egypt. Wrapped 1.5 times around body with pleating on front during last .5 turn.
Used to belt together front and back pieces of kimono-like garment in Egypt.
Tube-shaped, tight-fitting dress. Knit in the round to fit individual. Very long, down to ankles, but stretchy to allow for movement. Hits at mid-breast. Single shoulder strap tied to inside.
kimono-like garment
Large rectangle of linen as wide as arm-span and twice height from head to toe with hole in middle. Back section was pulled around to front and belted with girdle, or sometimes left to hang in back. Almost always pleated.
Lock of youth
Young boys shaved hair but left one lock on side, like pony tail. Signified that they were children of pharoah and would be eligible to become one some day.
Nemes Headdress
Type of crown worn by pharoahs. Made of pleated linen, often with gold woven in. Cobra at front of headdress.
Crown that combines the two styles of lower and upper Egypt.
Special type of shenti reserved for pharoahs. Long and completed pleated, then wrapped around body. Always contained narrow rectangle of fabric in middle, like phalic symbol.
General term for Egyptian loin cloths. Worn by men and women. Basic garment at the time. Varied in length, degree of pleating, and style of tying.
Wax perfume cones
A break from their obsession with cleanliness, Egyptians would sometimes wear cones of wax on their heads in the evening so that the wax would melt and flow down their bodies, thus perfuming themselves.
Garment worn close to body over loincloth in Greece. Large rectangle of fabric wrapped around body and belted.
Cloak worn for travelling and by military officials. Pinned on with fibulae.
Early Greek period. Costumes and architectural elements were simpler. Not as much fluting.
Pin used to fasten Greek chitons, himations, chlamys, etc. Open-ended = Doric. Fancier, closed-ended = ionic.
Bulge of fabric about waist caused by the belting of the chiton.
This was the female version of the chlamys.
Travelling hat with low crown and wide brim.
Phrygian cap
Bonnet-like hat worn by the Phrygian people. Men worked as mercenary freedom-fighters, which is why the hats were adopted by participants in the French Revolution.
Travelling hat made of felted wool with little or no brim.
Necklace with pendant worn by young Roman boys of prominent families signifiying that they would be important.
Garment consisting of a paenula (like chlamys) with a cucullus (hood) attached.
Stripes on tunics. Started as military insignia and became decorative, even worn by women later.
Hood attached to chlamys to form casula.
Type of Roman footwear, like sandal.
Roman equivalent of trousers. Bifurcated garments such as these were considered barbaric by Romans, but could be worn if necessary, as when travelling to northern Europe.
Roman equivalent of Greek chlamys
Roman females' equivalent of Greek himation.
Similar to Greek himation, acts as outer garment for non-citizens of Rome.
Badges sewn onto corners of Roman garments.
Pockets created from large folds of fabric in togas.
Simple type of Roman sandal that covers little of the foot.
Roman females' equivalent of Greek himation.
Tube-like garment worn by Roman women to give some support to breasts while being active.
Roman outer garment. Badge of citizenship. Made from wool and wrapped 3-3.5 times around body. Never pinned on; takes a great deal of to wear them. Many types: praetexta, candida, virillus, laena, pulla, ornamentum (to name a few).
Toga praetexta
Basic toga with scarlet stripe along one edge. Worn by boys until 14 years, then put away until they are elected as senators, who wear them.
Toga Candida
Bleached white with no decoration, worn by candidates for office to signify their spotless records.
Toga Virillus
Natural wool color, not adorned.
Toga Laena
Double-layered, lined for warmth.
Toga Pulla
Died gray with black stripe along edge. Worn during times of public mourning.
Toga Ornamentum
Natural color with scenes from history and mythology. Given as prizes like medals of honor.
T-shaped garment often worn under toga to replace Greek chiton and get rid of extra fabric.
Large, draped loop at front of toga.
Tight-fitting leg coverings popular in Byzantium and early northern Europe. They reached to just below the knee in the 11th century and rose up the thigh in the 12th.
Handkerchiefs symbolisin wealth of owners. They were oblong at this time and continued to be so until the 18th century, when Louis passed a law that they should be square.
Half-circle piece of fabric worn asymmetrically on body with bottom edge being straight across. Worn by Roman equestrians, then becomes badge of Byzantine citizenship, worn only by men and the empress.
Large rectangle of color reaching from front to back of paludamentum in Byzantium.
1st garment meant to fit closely to body with way to attach upper and lower portions, and thus having a waistline.
Bifurcated leg coverings used for war in early medieval Europe. Word becomes breeches.
Small, bonnet-like cap worn by women in early medieval Europe.
Hairnet, often heavily decorated with jewels, signifying that a woman was married in early medieval and 14th Century.
Garment draped over armor in 11th century to protect from sun. Eventually sewed up sleeves and split up middle for riding. Crusaders returned with this garment and modified it, creating 2 forms: ganache and gardcorps.
Derivative of cyclas with sleeves. Acts as surcoat in 13th and 14th centuries.
Form of cyclas without functional sleeves (they hang down). Scholars tied sleeves in knots and hung books in them; becomes modern academic regalia.
Gorget was a strip of fabric worn under chin and tied over head. Symbol of modesty and marriage. Becomes associated with nuns. A barbette was similar, but pleated, and worn by widows.
Gown for women in 14th Century. Often worn with cyclas over top.
Close-fitting dress for women in 14th century - wide neck and long sleeves. Always worn under cotehardie until probably 15th century.
Similar to gorget but pinned on instead of being tied over head. Usually worn by married women in 14th cnetury along with veil on head. Started being worn by nuns.
Hoods became detached from garments and people began to wear them as hats with their heads in the face hole during the 14th and 15th centuries. This was the name for them.
Linen women's undergarment of 14th century. Like a shift.
Type of gown often worn under cyclas. Fits more loosely than cotehardie.
Process of cutting sleeves or edges of garments to create hanging strips of fabric, emphasize elongation. Popular in 14th and 15th centuries.
Long, hanging part of sleeve on cotehardie or houppelande. Mean to emphasize elongation. Popular in 14th and 15th centuries. Organically cut into garment.
Long, thin tip of hood or chaperone. Often slung over shoulder. Popular in 14th and 15th centuries.
Having one leg or half of a garment in one color and the other in a different color. Like heraldry, but only for decoration.
This refers to the stiffened part of the sideless gown.
These were shoes with extremely long pointed toes. 13th, 14th, 15th centuries.
Men's undegarment. Buttoned down front. Padded garment originally worn under armor, then under coté or cotehardie.
Sideless Gown
Type of dress with stiffened top portion and no sides on top. Attached to full skirt on bottom. Scandalous (windows of Hell) because it draws attention to hips and waist.
All hair is divided into 2 pieces, braided, and drawn to sides of head in front of ears.
Like lappet, but tied or sewn onto garment rather than being a part of the garment itself.
Black Work
Black silk embroidery. Extremely expensive because, black was hard to dye, silk was hard to obtain, and embroidery was labor-intensive. Philip the Bold (15th century) had black work on his shirts, which could not be laundered, so he bought a dozen.
Women's head covering in 15th century with two large points. Looks like padded roll on top.
Butterfly Hennin
Women's head covering in 15th century with two large folds of fabric at top.
Wooden platforms to be worn under shoes to keep them clean. Started in 15th, but continued into 17th.
More elaborate form of daging that makes garments look like they are covered in leaves. Very popular in 15h century.
Type of hat worn by women; like dunce cap.
Ubiquitous in the 15th century on both men and women, this was an outer garment with a great deal of fabric, belted at waist to control excess. Sleeves were also very full and usually has some kind of interesting element to them. Some have bottle necks.
Chains with medallions; signified wealth. Originated in 15th century.
Carved wooden outdoor shoes meant to protect leather slippers. 15th century.
Early version of lapels, they were formed when people turned down top of gown to show lining.
Très Riches Heures
Calendar painted in the 15th century by the brothers Limbourgs for the dukes of Burgundy, illustrating life in and about the court.
Hat with stiff brim, soft crown, often with brim turned up. Like that worn by Henry VIII in 16th century.
Box Coat
Very wide, full coat with short but full sleeves. Often open in front and lined with fur (revers to expose lining). Straps inside coat go over shoulders and around to back to keep it on. Like that worn by Henry VIII in 16th century.
Straps over shoulders used to hold up skirt that can go over peplum of doublet. 16th century.
Close-fitting breeches down to knees. Sometimes worn with other types of breeches (like trunk hose). 16th C.
Cod Piece
Develops as cotés become shorter and parts of body become exposed. Rectangle of fabric that covers genitals and is often stiffened and reenforced. Becomes decorative phallic symbol.
Primary men's garment of 16th century - will last into early 17th and develop into suitcoat. Has 2 layers of fabric (singlet has one and is for servants). Closes down front and has sleeves, and always has either peplum (very short) or skirt (longer) below waistline.
Duck Bill Shoes
Continuing trend of widening clothing forms, these were soft, leather shoes cut straight across toes, often with slashing at toes to make them appear even wider.
Drum Farthingale
Type of foundation garment formed like hoop skirt, but with circles of the same size to creat cylindrical shape. Elizabeth and her ladies wore them. Usually accompanied by cartwheel ruff.
Gable Headdress (English Hood)
Architectural form of headdress popular in first half of 16th C.
Large, round breeches. Extremely wide. AKA pumpkin breeches. 16th C.
Lower/Nether Hose
Hose worn on lower part of leg.
Peascod Belly
Padded part of doublet meant to make belly appear larger. Often came to point at bottom as vestige of cod piece.
Type of collar ubitquitous in 16th C. Formed by folding fabric many times. Various types: millstone ruff around neck, punto in aria ruff open in front, and cartwheel worn around waist with drum farthingale.
A decorative sword-belt worn asymmetrically on the body.
Bucket-top boots
Tops of boots are turned down in early 17th C. so that lining shows. Lace cuffs are also added.
Flat ruffs; fall onto shoulders in 17th C.
Like doublet but without sleeves. Sometimes worn over doublet.
Love Lock
Women wore single curl over shoulder to be provocative.
An evolution of the falling ruff, the rabat immediately preceded the cravat, and was often made of lace. Early 17th C.
Spanish cape that has sleeves, but they are never worn. Draped asymmetrically over shoulder.
Knee-length surcoat that is fitted at waist - think George Washington. Late 17th and into 18th.
Evolution of rabat and result of falling collars, the cravat or stock was a piece of fabric (often muslin or lace) tied around the neck and allowed to hang on the chest. Precursor to the tie. Late 17th - 19th C.
Refers to the characteristic ruffles on the shirts of the late 17th and 18th C.
Petticoat Breeches
Short breeches with the lining sticking out below them and lots of clusters of ribbons at waist and hem.
Tall lace headdresses meant to emphasize vertical aspect of women in lat 17th C.
Full-bottom Wig
At end of 17th C. people begin to wear wigs, and full-bottomed wigs were the most fashionable. They were often powdered.
Type of dress fitted at waist and fitting rather closely at back, still with some material trailing at back. Late 17th C. early 18th C.
Like vest, but with sleeves. Buttoned down front and worn under justacorps or other surcoat. Lasted through late 17th and much of 18th and 19th centuries.
Smaller, close-fitting wig of much of the 18th century with pony-tail at back. Often 2 or 3 curls at fron and over ears. Tied with ribbons in back.
Polonaise, Robe a l'Anglaise
Dress w/ three tiers of fabric. Close-fitting at back.
Pouter Puff Pidgeon
Late 18th Century artificial increase in breast size via padding in chest.