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83 Cards in this Set

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Subject
Refers to the persons or things represented as well as the artist's experience serving as inspiration.

The Who/What in a piece of art.
>Who is represented?
>What is represented?
>What is happening (sometimes)?
Style
Refers to a particular manner in which an artist has treated or manipulated the visual elements.

One of the How's (outside the art itself) in a piece of art:
>How does the artist get their message across?
>Symbolism (part of a person's style--one artist may use bull horns to signify strength, while another uses a beard for example.
>Style is often defined by words like naturalism, idealism, etc. but can also include such things as twisted perspective.
>A period is not necessarily a style, although art is often divided into periods of art with similar characteristics.
Technique
Refers to a method and skill with which artists employ their tools and materials to achieve an expressive effect.

The other How (inside the art) in a piece of art:
>How does the artist physically portray what he or she wishes to get across (i.e. is it a painting, sculpture, etc.? and if it is a sculpture, is it a sculpure in the round? a relief sculpture? etc.)
Composition (design)
The organization or inventive arrangement of all the visual elements (i.e. shapes, lines, colors, etc.)

The Where in a piece of art:
>Where in the art form does the artist choose to put the visual elements that he or she uses? (Note: What they represent is part of style or content).
>Examples of such could be registers (comic strip like formation), hieratic scale, hieratic placement etc.)
Content
The asthetic value of an art form and the artistic value or importance.

The why in a piece of art:
>Why does an artist choose to portray what they do?
>Why was the artist inspired to create this piece of art (i.e. was there a battle/conquering? was there a very important person who ascended to the throne? etc.)
>What is the historical, political, religious and social significance of what was created?
>What did the art attempt to embody/represent/what was the artist trying to get his viewer to consider or what did he/she want the viewer to think (i.e. Sargon was great, Religion is important, etc.)
SPOTTED HORSES
(negative hand print)
With what painting does this match?
SORCERER
(not in lecture but included on hand out)
Included on sheet but not in lecture
BISON W/ TURNED HEAD
11,000-9,000 B.C.
Relief Sculpture: high and low points
Made from a reindeer horn
Time period? Style?
VENUS OF LAUSSEL
France
before 15,000 B.C.
Location? Time period?
Sculpture in the round
Carved from stone, able to walk all the way around it
What significance did Paleolithic paintings hold for their creators?
Paintings believed to hold MAGICAL and SPIRITUAL significance, not used for decoration, performed with RITUALISTIC and CERMONIAL intent, served as an INTERMEDIARY
Define INTERMEDIARY
Intermediary: Coping device between phsyical and unknown
What materials were available in prehistoric times?
Minerals, berries, blood, fire embers, sticks, hands, etc.
define FRIEZE
Frieze: collective images that run together
define TECHTIFORM
Techtiform: simple, geometric form
What is the "old stone age" also known as?
The Paleolithic period (35,000-8,000 B.C.)
What is the "middle stone age" a.k.a.?
The Mesolithic Period (8,000-4,000 B.C.)
What defines when the Mesolithic period begins?
The progressive development and organization of people's lifestyles. Subject matter changes-reveals a rise in intelligence.
DEER HUNT
Mesolithic
Period?
What is the "new stone age" a.k.a.?
Neolithic Period (4,000-1,500 B.C.)
STONEHENGE
Salsbury Plain, England
2,000-1,650 B.C.
Post and Lintel: Type of construct; Post: vertical (walls), Lintle: horizontal (roof)
Location? Time Period? Term?
Was Mesopotamia a peaceful or a warring region?
Mesopotamia=Warring Region
When did the settlement of the great river valleys take place?
EARLY 4th century B.C.
Where did the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations emerge?
Bordering the eastern Medditeranian region
Describe the Mesopotamian Valley
►Rich, fertile land
►City-states that war against each other for control of the region
What are Sumerians credited with being the first at?
►First to have a written language made with reeds
►First civilization
When was the Sumerian Period and what is a characteristic of it?
3000-2500 B.C., it was a theocratic society (run by religion) and was POLYtheistic
Define CONVENTIONS
A group of characteristics
STELE OF HAMMURABI
Babylon
1760 B.C.
Displays increased human self-awareness: human facing a god
Honors Hammurabi's Code: 1st set of laws to rule a country
Characteristics: God and man shown as equal in height, god in human form for the first time, 7 feet tall
Human awareness? Characteristics?
WHITE TEMPLE PLAN
Sumerian Period
(On sheet but not in lecture)
Bent-axis: ?
Term?
ZIGGURAT AT UR
Sumerian Period
2,100 B.C.
Stylistic Conventions: sundried bricks
It was a "sairway to heaven" (the priests would talk to the gods in the building and only the highest people were allowed to go inside)
Time Period? Stylistic Conventions?
STANDARD OF UR
Sumerian Period
2600 B.C.
Registers: separated compositional arrangement
Time Period? Registers?
HARP SOUNDBOX
Sumerian Period
Ur
2600 B.C.
Bull=strength, life-force and fertility
Beard
Characteristics?
STATUETTES OF ABU TEMPLE
Tel Asmar
2,700-2,500 B.C.
Purpose: Votive
Hieractical scale: Some statuettes are taller than others indicating that the person is more important.
Conical form, wide eyes, praying figures, votive figurines, took the emphasis off of the hman body and put it into a religious sense
Purpose? Hieractical scale?
3 COWS AND A HORSE
Paleolithic
Twisted perspective
Haphazardly placed, painted=technique
Subject?
(BRONZE) BUST OF AN AKKADIAN RULER (PROBABLY SARGON) A.K.A. NINEVAH
Akkad
2300-2200 B.C.
Sculpture
Eyes empty
Style? Who is represented? Time Period?
Dying Bison
Paleolithic
Altamira Cave, Spain
15,000-10,000 B.C.
Optical Perception: Conture
Location? Time period? Optical perception?
Hall of Bulls
Lascaux Caves, France
15,000-8,000 B.C.
Period: Paliolithic
Subject: Bulls they were getting ready to hunt
Style: White, brown, red/rust, yellow colors, more distinct curves...
Naturalistic: The artist was trying to represent the animals as well as they could portray them (shown by conturing etc.) but the materials and experience were minimal).
Twisted perspective: The bulls horns (you should only see one horn in profile but you are able to see two)
Technique: Painting on a cave wall (blood, dirt, spit ect.)
Composition: Frieze (collective images that run together). Hieratics: some bulls longer than others
Content: religion, the uncontrollable/unknown, human awareness, unpredictable circumstances, this art was not done for decoration but rather had magical and spiritual significance in preparation for a good hunt.
Location? Time period? Other Features?
Chinese Horse
France
Paliolithic/Old Stone Age
Subject: Horse
Style: Bloated belly, small head to represent fertility, no foreground/background. Naturalistic: orange, brown, rust colors; not detailed lines
Technique: painting on a cave wall (blood, dirt, etc.)
Composition: Central subject in space, spear-like techtiform superimposed above.
Content: Pregnancy, fertility, human awareness of life, spear marks signify human presence and the necessity of food, used for magical and spiritual purposes to ensure a good hunt (techtiform may represent the thing used to kill the animals (spear?))
Intermediary: Coping device between the physical and the unknown.
Knicks and gouges in the piece probably made by arrows or stones thrown at the wall.
Represents? Special Features?
The Well/Well Scene
France
Paliolithic
Human form not realistic (may have a mask on?) stick down-left could signify that he is a shamen of sorts
Conceptual Perception: an idea expressed
Conceptual Perception
SPOTTED HORSES
Pech-Merle Cave, France
15,000-13,000 B.C.
Negative Hand Print
Done to the formation of the rock
Location? Time Period? Vocab word? Special Feature?
VENUS OF WILLENDORF
Austria
Paliolithic
28,000-25,000 B.C.
Fertility of women (importance of fertility to people of this time period who needed to grow crops)
Fetish: fertility figure, universal image, not a portrait
Sculpture in the round
Composition: Only certain body parts emphasized
Location? Time period? Represents? Term? Style? Specific person?
STONEHENGE
Salsbury Plain, England
2,000-1,650 B.C.
Post and Lintel: Type of construct; Post: (megaliths) vertical (walls), Lintle: horizontal (roof)
Location? Time Period? Term?
Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East:
(Consisting of Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Egyptians)
Polytheistic early civilizations sprouting from Tigris and Euphraties Rivers (Mesopotamia) and the Nile (Egypt)
Akkad
>Famous for languages on clay tablets
>Akkadian language
Fertility religion
>Ancient Near East Polytheists who cared only about crops growing and not about afterlife/mortals with religion.
>due to inconsistant rainfall
Sparta
>Complete subordination of people to the state
>Beat Athens
>Made laws and gov't
Babylon/Babylonia
Home of Hammurabi in Mesopotamia (between the Tigris and Euphraties rivers) 1750 B.C.E.
ZIGGURATS, CUNEIFORM
hieroglyphics
Egyptian form of pictoral writing on walls, china etc.
Ur
Home of Abraham and wandering tribes in Mesopotamia
Polytheism
Belief, by all inhabitants of the Ancient Near East except the Hebrews and the Amarna Egyptians, in more than one god.
Cuneiform
First kind of writing: 2500 B.C.E. in Sumer
>Mostly for business transactions
>Hard to learn how to do--even harder to read
What defines the period?
PALEOLITHIC: cave paintings with spiritual significance, no/few humans, techtiforms (age of humans making tools)
MESOLITHIC:some humans-survival was important to this age (humans planted food and domesticated animals)
NEOLITHIC:societal, fertility important (people freed from nomadic way of life, pottery, textiles, stone sikles, woven rugs appear, life and death and rebirth cycle at the center of the culture)
SUMERIAN:Religious (conical shape, religious importance) not detailed
BABYLONIAN:religious-first laws (Hammurabi)
ASSYRIAN:war attitude-very detailed
AKKADIAN:war-like-naturalistic and not detailed
OLD KINGDOM:Profiles
MIDDLE KINGDOM:gradual idealization and simplification of profiles
NEW KINGDOM:lots of idealism
ARMANA:exagerated features, naturalistic
PALLET OF NARMER (a.k.a. Menes)
Old Kingdom/Pre-Dynastic Period
3100 B.C.
Egypt
Subject: Narmer, fallen enemy, slave carrying Narmer's shoes, Horus as a bird, bull horns, papyrus plant, lotus ("bowling pin hat")
Style: Bull horns signify strength in the conquering of Lower Egypt, Horus is represented as a bird, holding the papyrus plant and a decapitated head on a leash (these things represent Lower Egypt), hieratic scale and placement are used placing Narmer in the center and making him bigger than the enemy and the slave, slave is holding his shoes which shows that he is probably walking on sacred ground
Technique: Slate relief sculpture
Composition: Registers separate Narmer and the enemy that he has by the hair from the enemy already fallen at the bottom, Bull horns as the top, hieratic scale and placement
Content: Used as a make-up pallet, done because of the victorious battle of Narmer conquering Lower Egypt and unifying Upper and Lower Egypt bringing about the first dynasty.
?
ROYAL CITADEL OF SARGON II
Assyrian
Khorsabad
Fortified walls to the king's palace; Lamasus outside
?
WINGED HUMAN HEADED BULL (LAMASU)
c. 720 B.C.
Assyrian
5 legs to show movement and 4 legs from each side as you walk around
?
ASHURNASIPAL HUNTING LIONS
Nimrud
Assyrian
850-650 B.C.
Royal sport; twisted perspective; relief sculptures
?
DYING LIONESS
Assyrian
Ninevah
650 B.C.
Suffering, part of the royal sport, strength in upper body, dragging her lower half
?
ISHTAR GATE
575
Neo-Babylonia
Glazed bricks, beatiful, sophisticated techniques
?
DRAGON OF MARDUK
Neo-Babylonia
?
define BENT-AXIS
indirect access
Cannon of Proprtions
Person standing with head, hips and feet in profile and shoulders straight on (actually very hard to stand this way)
define MASTABA
a grave with treasures placed inside
PANEL OF HESIRE
Egyptian
?
What are characteristics of Egyptian life?
>Civilized life
>Orderly gov't
>Commerce through shipping
(this lead to assimilation of cultures)
>Built great stone structures
>Created a system of writing
>Absorbed Sumerian inventions and made more extensive use of them
>began art which was the foundation of Western civilization
Mummification
Only rich people could afford it, done for the afterlife and the Ka (spirit), they put the organs into jars with heads on them that represented 4 sons of Egyptian gods
STEPPED PYRAMID OF ZOSER
2610 B.C.
Zoser=first Egyptian king
Necropolis=city of the dead
?
IMHOTEP
Egyptian
Right hand man, doctor, philosopher, astronomer, architect
Rose from humble beginnings, immortalized and deified in written records
?
define NECROPOLIS
city of the dead
PYRAMIDS AT GIZA
Old Kingdom
Menkure 2460 B.C. (smallest)
Khafre 2530 B.C. (Great Sphinx)
Khufu 2500 B.C. (tallest)
Made of Benben stone
Surrounded by Necropolis
Became a symbol of power for the Phaoroh, materials critical to carry everlasting spirit through
Used to be covered in white limestone-now erroded
?
The Middle Kingdom maked the evolution of what?
Turmoil
Rock-cut tomb: tunnel 50-60 ft. into the side of a mountain
GEESE OF MEDUM
Old Kingdom
?
KA-APER WITH OFFERINGS
Old Kingdom
?
STATUARY FIGURE OF ZOSER
Old Kingdom
Egypt
?
STATUARY FIGURE OF KHAFRE
Beard, bird (Horus) embracing head, made of stone to last for eternity, closed form (all apendages hug the body (not extended)
Ka: spirit that lives into eternity
?
MENKAURE AND QUEEN/DEITY
Old Kingdom
Egypt
Same height
Hgih relief (Menkaure is moving=inovative composition)
?
KA-APER (MINOR OFFICIAL)
Old Kingdom
Egypt
Characteristics: Made of wood, once beautifully painted, ntural conturing, body realistic
?
MORTUARY TEMPLE/QUEEN HATSHEPSUT
1450 B.C.
New Kingdom
Egypt
She became self-appointed Phaoroh-many campaigns-voyages-imports-adorned with plants and animals, she was overthrown and they tried to rid the record of her by desroying artist's likenesses of her face
?
TEMPLE OF RAMSES II
New Kingdom
1257 B.C.
Egypt
Slightly larger than Mt. Rushmore-65 ft., 100's of wives and children, great ruler of Egypt
Alantes: male figure scultures made of living rock cur out of a mountain to make passageways
Caryatid: supporting column in the form of a drapped, female figure
?
PYLON TEMPLE
New Kingdom
Egypt
Not a tomb-used strictly for worship
Pylon: slanted wall
Freesanding, enclosed structure:
Axial plan: vertical, straight plan
Clerestory: a split elevation (looked like a grill) for air, light etc.
Pylons in front
First room: Great court: commoners allowed here
Second room: hypostyle hall: important people only allowed here
Third room: inner sanctuary: only priests and such allowed here
Ligth let in from a whole in the end of the chamber
?
TOMB OF NAKT
New Kingdom
Egypt
Divisions of paintings on walls-done for the Ka
Fresco: technique of painting where you have to first prepare the surface
?
AKHENATEN RELIEF
1365 B.C.
Amarna Period
Egypt
Subject: Akhenaten
Style:exageratted naturalism (characature-like features),flowing, naturalistic, realistic with exaggerated features
Technique: Bas relief of limestone
Composition: profile to show strength in the eyes of the Egyptians, centered and fills entire surface
Content: made to honor him, statement of a new ideal, he put Egypt into the Amarna Period with his rebel proclaimation of monotheism, he was a Phaoroh-like figure who had more power because he was the only one who could talk to the only god
?
VICTORY STELE OF NARIM-SIN
Akkad
2300-2200 B.C.
Narim-Sin=Sargon's grandson
Stele: monumental, commerative plaque
Characteristics: Made of pink-sandstone, 7 feet tall, relief sculpture, going up to the mountain, Narim-Sin is at the top, people dying and hanging off the mountain under him
Gods represented (by the 2 suns): Shemash (sun god) and Ishtar (battle god)-polytheism
This piece introduced a new concept of royal power where loyalty was placed in the king instead of the city-state
?