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40 Cards in this Set

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Fessenden
1906 - first transmission of voice (Christmas eve broadcast)
De Forest
1906 - created the Audion to share opera w/ public; asked listeners for feedback, received postcards (audion magnified signals; was later sued for it by Marconi; sold it to AT&T for $50,000)
Popov
1895 - successfully transmitted through the air (wireless; never did a broad demonstration)
Marconi (beginnings)
1895 - transmission in code; ended up selling to British Navy; transmitted Morse code from England to Newfoundland (2,000 miles). Morse used on ships.
What was the state of amateur radio around WW I?
There were lots of amateurs on the radio during WW I.
Who controlled the licensing of transmitters in WWI?
When US entered WW I in April 1917, it demanded control over licensing of transmitters. The US got full control, helped bankroll a lot of technological development (i.e., more powerful transmitters)
Was the Navy able to retain its control after WW I, and why/why not?
No, it overplayed its hand; the Army argued, and then Congress decided to stick it w/ the Dept. of Commerce
When the Dept. of Commerce was given control over the licensing of transmitters, what was its state?
It wasn't given any money for it, so it began licensing out the broadcasts; (about 1920) there weren't even radio sets you could really buy; they restricted hours.
KDKA, Frank Conrad
first commercial radio station in US; Frank Conrad broadcast of results of the 1920 Presidential Election; radio listeners knew the results before others, and thus people started becoming interested in getting their own receivers
Horne's Department Store
Sold receivers, 1920; set sales to a passive public, making radio service more of a one-way than a two-way service. This led to scheduled, predictable broadcasts
True or False, in first years of 1920s many were still making their own radio sets
True
1920-1929: Manufacturers
Westinghouse - payoff was int he manufacturing of equipment; GE got involved too. They didn't care what went on the air, but they were smart enough to know that if they didn't put something w/ some regularity, no one would buy the radios. Vaudeville popular; dramas w/ descriptions of stage actions.
1920-1929: Business
Newspapers: wanted to increase their readership (not take advantage of new form of journalism), used radio to get name out there; Dept. stores - same thing, wanted to get name out.
1920-1929: Education and religious institutions
Schools wanted students working w/ new technologies. Religious institutions wanted to proselytize/convert
1920-1929: Amateurs
WDGY - owner Young arranged all sorts of trade-outs (50% off for his family in exchange for ad time)
1920-1929: AT&T, toll boradcasting
toll broadcasting go t aslow start; but they were able to get high-profile entertainers to fill up program space. Finally, housing development from Long Island ran an ad, it was very successful; other companies started to get interested.
1920-1929: Gender
Of those getting licenses, most were males (not many women were encouraged to get into the field)
1920-1929: Ethnic minorities
Attempts to get stations were unsuccessful (this was true until after WW II).
1920-1929: Advertising
Show sponsorships begin; advertising comes in gradually until networks are formed
1920-1929: Growth of Networks
AT&T (1923), NBC (1926), CBS (1928), Mutual (1935), ABC (1945). WEAF (NYC), AT&T's station, networked and shared its programming
1920-1929: Borrowed & Original formats
Borrowed - sports, religion, variety, news, drama

Original - quiz, soap operas, ads
significance of WEAF
used for AT&T's toll broadcasting
Discuss what was covered, concluded by 4 National Radio Conferences (1922-25)
Amateurs - largest in #s, least predictable (didn't have reliable signals, airtime, etc.; but, they did have licenses). Professionals wanted to get rid of amateurs. By 1925, advertising looks like the real future of advertising; professionals better suited for advertising; Herbert Hoover oversaw these
What was the outcome of the Zenith Corporation case?
United States vs. Zenith Radio Corporation (1926), a federal judge ruled the Commerce Department had no jurisdiction to regulate radio. Other rulings by the U.S. Attorney General completely nullified Department of Commerce control.
What led up to the Zenith case of 1926?
Zenith dissatisfied w/ its airtime, applied for anew frequency space, US Commerce Dept. says they were reserving the space for interaction w/ Mexico or Canada
What was decided in the Radio Act of 1927?
To form the Federal Radio Commission (FRC): made it so that amateurs would have to have equipment to keep it to its assigned frequency (this caused most of the amateurs to disappear, making for happy professionals)
When did spot advertising and sponsorship become dominant?
1928
What aspect of radio grew especially during the Depression?
Sponsorship
Instead of radio, whose audiences decline in Depression, and why not radio?
Movies, newspapers; not radio because the only cost of radio is the set.
1929-1941: Sponsorship
Sponsorships were never better; there was a price to pay for this - sponsors began to think they shoudl get more in return; they wanted to put ads in at certain points in program, as well as program itself; sponsors, in a sense, start to get censorship rights
1929-1941: Programming control
Ad agencies start creating their own studios, create the shows there; networks lose a lot of control over content programming (though, even if not the case, networks still would've been trying to please the sponsors)
1929-1941: First protests over programming content
Pittsburgh Courier & local church denounced dialogue of Amos 'n' Andy 1930-31. Groups in public began to take radio seriously in terms of its social impact; people became more concerned about daily life in general (not specific to radio)
Press Radio War
1933 - 193?:

Radio (CBS) wants to do its own news broadcasting; up until 1930s if radio station did news broadcasting, it was taken from newspaper; newspapers threatened to stop carrying radio broadcasting schedules; radio wasn't set up w/ idea of transmitting news; it was for entertainment
Communications Act of 1934
Replaced FRC w/ FCC; Congress got interested in setting aside frequencies for non-commercial broadcasting; commercial broadcasters fought back; this was the result.
Late 1930s: End of Press-Radio War
Radio stations start getting back into news, late 1930s; broadcast journalism rises; by the end of the 1930s, networks are developing original newscasts.
WW II
Broadcast journalism becomes a lot more important w/ US involvement, reports of battles, etc.; Excess profits tax (80%) leads to increased program sponsorship; Radio feels less public obligation than it did in the 1920s
Post WW II - part one
not a huge growth in licensed stations up until 1945, but then BOOM!; FCC opens up frequencies; the new stations have problem: where do they get their programming material? lack of network outlets available.
Short wave
Development of short wave technology helped the rise of broadcast journalism
Post WW II - part two
new stations w/o network affiliations create format radio (all music); radio carries television (financially; during WW II maybe 10,000 TV sets nationwide); first minority radio stations come ont he air - part of the idea of stations created for one particular type of listener
format radio
does one type of broadcasting, and not really anything else