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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
transmission of a message from a source to a reciever
basic definition of communication
4 types of communication
interpersonal, intrapersonal, group, mass
the way a message is sent out
encoding
the interpretatin of a message
decoding
concentration of media industries into a smaller number of companies
oligopoly
direspect of nations customs, values, and culture by far away companies
diversity of expression issue
narrowcasting, niche marketing, targeting, less of mass audience
audience defragmentation
groups of ppl bound by only an interest in a given form of media content
taste publics
rise in commercials
hypercommercialism
radio stations accepting payment for playing a company's record
payola
companies selling music, shows, movies online
convergance
a corporation dealing in multiple businesses
synergy
the era in ML where language was local and specialized, history was handed down orally and memory was key
oral cultures
allowed history to be written down
invention of writing
social and cultural rules and structures changed, meaning in language more uniform, no longer local, political and military expansion occured power was with literacy
Literate culture
invented in 1446; movable metal type; allowed ppl to have books, become literate, helped sped up rise of democracy; gave regular ppl powerful voice
Gutenberg Press
the media deciding what issued people think about by what is reported
agenda setting
looking at content of media
content analysis
wrote the book public opinion about where issues came from and how public opinion is formed in 1927
Walter Litman
the idea of guarding what came in and out of the public info bank evolved in 1947
gate keeping
in 1950 he studied 'mr. gate' and looked at why he put certain stories in the paper
David Manning White
looked at the influence that gatekeeping had on audience; used content analysis and surveys; found issues in paper were more impor for audience; 1972
Macoums and Shaw
the idea that ppl remember what they last read and saw in a shorter period of time better than longer ago
6 week span
studied how the media orientes you to environment; especially in political elections; you recall more; 1973
Macoums and Weaver
in 1980 looked at influence on the gate keeper himself; who influences him?
whitney and becker
in 1987 studied local newspapers and saw that not all issued in paper were on agenda for all people
smith
looked at news watchers attentiveness of media in 1985; individual concerns more imp than local or widespread ones
Hill, Bayer, Inger
3 and a half year study on media and found that most recent news had highest importance on people's radar in 1989
Eden
explanations and predicatinos of social phenomenon that attempts to relate mass comm to various aspects of out personal and cultural lvies or social systems
mass communications
the theory that deals with cultivation analysis; by george gerbner in 1960's ; it is a meaning theory
cultivation theory
a modeling theory that says ppl model their behavior after what they see on media
social cognitive learning theory
theory that attitude toward something can shape our behavior regarding it
attitude change theory
states when people are confronted by news or conflicing info they experience mental discomfort
dissonance theory
if media have any imapct it is in the direction of reinforcement
reinforcement theory
says ppl become more and more dependant on media to understand the world around them
dependency theory
the theory that media operate to justidy and support the status quo at the expence of ordinary ppl
critical culture theory
says ppl are oppressed by those who control the mass media
neo marxist theory
centered in neomarxism and sees the consumption of art as a way to better lives
frankfurt school of media theory
provided a home for feminist research
british cultural theory
people who share culture also share meaning
social construction of reality
collections of meaning assigned to some situations
typification schemes
the idea that media would have an immediate effect on people exposed to it
hypodermic needle theory
lazereld's idea that not everyone gets info from media but the public opinion leaders are effected
two-step flow
having no real life expereince with someone or something but have been exposed by media
exposed vicariously
people expose themselve only to messages consistent with preexisting beliefs
selective exposure
ppl remember what is consistent with preexisting beliefs
selective retention
ppl interpret messages in a manner that is consistent with preexisting beliefs
selective perecpetion/interpretation
claims that media doesnt to things to ppl, but ppl do thing with media; influence depends on how ppl allow it and this stresses the recirocal nature of mass comm
uses and gratification approach
asserts that media must remain free of government control but must also serve the public; accpet and fulfill certain obligations and set high standards of prof, truth, accuracy and objectivity
social responsibility theory
explains how media should ideally operate
normative theories
stations that operate from outside the region they transmit
exogenous stations
stations operating from inside the region they transmit
indigenous stations
illegally operated stations; some have become powerful and subsidized by companies
pirated stations
coordinated ownership and operations of american satellite communications system;
comsat; communications satelite corp
concept used in great britain; recognizes that no completely free media system exists and that the government ensures media meet responsibilities
western concept of media
3rd world; honduras; says gov't and media work together to ensure media assists in the development of a country; content designed to meet needs
development concept of media
poland; has 4 aims: 1) ending government monopoly over info 2) help organization of opposition 3) destroy legitamacy of current government 4) bring down standing goverenment
revolutionary concept of media
communism; china; subjection of media for serving government
authoritive concept of media
invasion of an indeginous ppl's culture by powerful foreign countries by mass media
cultural imperialism
make an effort to understand content, pay attention and filter out noise; understand and respect power of media; know emotional from reasoned reactions
3 steps of media literacy
expect more of media content; know genre conventions; think critically about media messagesl know internal languages
4 more steps of media literacy
encoder---message----decoder
interpreter interpreter
decoder---message----encoder
osgood and schramm's model of communication
source sends message
through medium
to a receiver
producing an effect
lasswell's model of communication
"is a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and transferred"
james carey's defintion of communication
where copyrighted material may be used w/o the permission or payment
fair use
the philosophy that people cannot govern themselves in a democracy unles they have access to the info they need for that governance
libertarian
in great briain; an officially issued notice of prior restraint
D-notice
limits on advertising and other public service requirments imposed on britain;s commericial broadcasters in exchange for the right to broadcast
public service remit
released in 1980 by United Natins Edu, Sci, Cultural org. and called for the est. of a new world info order; rejected by western nations
MacBride report
a special division of VOA established by Reagan to broadcast into communist cuba
Radio Marti
broadcast to all of the communist bloc eastern european countries during the cold war
radio free europe
aimed at listeners in the soviet union
Radio Liberty
same concept as radio free europe only in asia
radio free asia
originally built on premise that broadcasting was a public trust (social responsibility model); limits government control and commercials
BBC
1)define situation
2)Identidy values
3)Identify principles
4)choose your loyalties
potters box of ethical decision making
principles to consider when making ethical decisions
truth and honesty
privacy and confidentiality
personal conflict of interests and profit
social responsibilities
protection from offensive content