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144 Cards in this Set

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What are the components of storage technologies? What does each mean?
Longevity - how long the information can be retained in a medium

Capacity - Amount of information that can be held

Portability - how easily the medium can be moved

Accessibility - how easily the information can be accessed (bahaha...)

Reproducibility - how easily a copy can be captured
Which component of storage technology has been sacrificed the most with improvements in technology?
Longevity
What storage technology is truly revolutionary with digital media compared to its analog counterparts? What are random access memory devices?
1)Reproducibility

2) usually used for a type of computer memory and abbreviated to RAM, in storage technology terms it is a type of media that allows for readers or viewers to randomly obtain specific pieces of content they are looking for by doing searches, using an index, or taking some other action
What complaints are often heard about news coverage of negative events such as crimes or accidents?
Critics say that this overwhlemingly negative coverage gives the public a misleading impression that things may be worse than they actually are
Is it common for a large portion of news to be actually manufactured by people and organizations and known about sometimes
well in advance of publication or airing?
Yes
What is a pseudo event?
Staged events like marches and rallies or press conferencecs --known about weeks in advance and are just a groups way of influencing what is covered in the news
Are most newspapers and magazines made up mostly of advertising rather or actual editorial content?
Yes
What is the oldest and largest news-gathering operations?
the Associated Press
What newspaper publisher who owned the St. Louis-Dispatch and New York World bequeathed money to start the Columbia
University School of Journalism?
Joseph Pulitzer
What noted newspaper publisher who owned the New York Morning Journal, was a politician, and who was immortalized in the
movie Citizen Kane?
William Randolph Hearst
When did the Golden Age of newspapers end?
it began its decline in the 1920's with the development of the radio but began the steepest decline in the 1940's and '50's when television news really began to take hold.
Is it true that traditional news media often decide how they will "frame" a story even before they have all the facts about the story?
Yes
The goal of objectivity in news coverage has largely been abandoned today for what reason or reasons?
Because critics said that it was impossible for someone to be truly unbiased even if theey mean to be...the editing, placement in newspaper, time slot on news channel, biases in the people who are interviewed for the piece, assignment of the story to a certain reporter...all these show some unintended bias
Is there is a strong imbalance in the use of expert sources on television news toward white males?
Yes
How do most news organizations plan their news coverage for the following day?
they put the potential stories in the AP day book and the night before, journalists go to the day book and find a story to cover the following day
At newspapers, who decides where stories are placed on the pages?
the editor
Out of the various types of journalism, which tends to be the most serious?
Health or Medical Journalism
Which is a type of journalism that breaks from journalism tradition?
Civic Journalism
What topics are covered by literary journalists?
anything from foreign affairs and politics to tennis matches and geologic formations
The idea that the public's growing cynicism and disaffection with politics was at least partly due to how poorly traditional
journalism covers such events is the basis for which kind of journalism?
Civic Journalism
Why has digital distribution changed the dynamics of distribution?
It has seriously lowered the distribution costs because there isn't reall a physical product that is sent out. Also, creating a copy of digital media is virtually without cost... there is no product to run out of so there is no real concept of supply/demand. Distribution is nearly instantaneous a click of a mouse can send the media to thousands in seconds. Digital distribution has allowed for peer-to-peer distribution
What are the fundamental characteristics of digital distribution?
The fundamental characteristics include:

It consists of electrons rather than anything physical

It has low distribution costs

It can make perfect infinite copies

It can do instantaneous distribution
With P2P networks, what does the audience essentially acts as?
In a peer to peer network, the audience is essentially the distributor such as programs like KaZaA and Morpheus
When was the fax invented? By whom?
It was invented in 1842 by Scottish psychologist Alexander Bain
What was the first technology that could transform information into electronic form and transmit it over great distances?
the electromagnetic telegraph
Describe packet switching
a type of switching that occurs within a network in which information is divided up into pieces, or packets, and transported as seperate packets using the least congested routes. At the end of the route the packets are reassembled in their proper order and delievered over the telephone line or Internet
In what way have communication satellites substantially upgraded mediated communication?
They have substantial bandwidth or communications capacity. More informastion can be distributed.

Since they are high above the earth, satellites permit ground based media to communicate with parties in remote corners of the Earth bounced off the satellite and relayed to a distant location that also has a line in sight with the satellite.
What was the major reason that fiber optics took so long to be used?
The technology was not that great because the use was dependent on the clarity of the signal (the weather) and also sending it over a long distance while keeping a good signal was pretty much impossible at that point in the development
which type of network model did the Internet, for various technical reasons, eventually developed into?
Client/server model
) Describe/define Metcalfe's Law
Definition: the calue of a network rises in proportion to the square of the number of people on that network. In other words, the more people who are connected to a network such as the Internet, the more valuable the network becomes
What is the program that helped put file sharing services in the news called
Napster
What was Napster's argument in their lawsuit with the RIAA?
They said that they were basically putting unknown bands onto their programs and that it was fair use. They also claimed that they should be protected under the 1992 Audio Home Recording Act which allows people to make digital recordings for their personal use
Why might other file-sharing services be harder to shut down than Napster?
With KaZaA the location of their headquarters made them hard to sue as well as the fact that they did not have a centralized server
What is a drawback of Gnutella?
It sometimes takes longer for queries to ripple through the network to find what one is looking for than if there was a central server that had a database of everything that was available.
Which P2P application has an expressed goal to disseminate uncensorable and controversial information?
Freenet
What is the name for a category for discussion groups within Usenet
newsgroup
What is a "lurker"?
a person on an online discussion board who does not contribute to discussions by posting messages but who simply reads what others write
How do chat rooms differ from instant messaging?
Instant messaging usually involves between two or at most a few people. Also, with instant messaging you need certain software to be able to have the discussion and chat rooms really don't have that limitation
What were the main reasons for Minitel's initial success?
Because the government subsidized it and provided access devices to every home
What accounts for the most Internet traffic today
e-mail
What has been a very effective marketing tool to bring people to media Web sites? Why?
mailing lists

because since it is in the person's personal email inbox, that person is more likely to look at it and open it and go and so on
Define "spam." Why is spam likely to continue?
Definition: unsolicited e-mail ladvertising. companies buy lists of addresses and send the people on the list ads

It is likely to continue because the costs for spam are low
) If someone sends an e-mail with possibly libelous content to a friend, and the friend posts the e-mail on the Web, who could be sued for libel? Explain.
According to the text, the outcome to this has not yet been resolved
Why do some experts say it is pointless to try to create digital distribution systems that ensure complete security?
They say that the moment that new security programs come out, a way to crack the system is not far behind
What idea espoused by Marshall McLuhan does the Internet seem to promise to deliver?
McLuhan argued that electronic media could bring back tribilization by connecting people. And the Internet does offer email and chat rooms and will eventually offer those things with video footage of the person speaking so in a way McLuhan is right although it's definitely a controversial subject
Which statement best summarizes social issues online?
With greater ability to mass distribute messges also comes greater responsibility in thinking how that distribution will affect others

-OR-

Some of the socialization issues regrading the Internet will gradually work themselves out as general rules of behavoir form and are accepted
For most online users what accompanies greater ability to mass distribute messages?
greater responsiblity in thinking how that distribution will affect others
According to the text, what is a likely outcome of video-based Internet systems
It will be harder to hide one's true identity...people who do not want to show who they are may be thought of as someone with something to hide--old prejudices like race, gender, and looks
) Is file-swapping is an example of radically changed consumer behavior caused by new technologies?
yes
Can digital distribution, despite all its benefits, still be expensive?
no
Will there likely be a place for established media companies in the future of the Internet?
yes
Did the high quality of service on the Internet help make it popular quickly?
no
Why was Napster sued by the record labels?
Because they were allowing consumers to search and download music for free without permission
) Did Napster's closing settle the legal and copying issues the record labels face?
no
Do the characteristics of online communities change with new technologies?
yes
Is the usefulness of discussion boards as a type of online communication greatly inhibited by their asynchronous nature?
no, discussion boards are synchronous
Did the creation of the World Wide Web largely make the Minitel system obsolete
yes
What section of France's Minitel were the only part that generated revenue?
"blue rooms" adult-oriented chat rooms
Is it possible, with email ,for individuals to "broadcast" their own messages to large numbers of people?
yes
With e-mail marketing messages, are "remove me" links usually effective? Why or why not?
No, usually remove me links are actually there to prove to the sender that the email account is still being used
What is a digital watermark? Can digital watermarks be completely invisible?
Definition : a symbol or mark embedded in a photograph that identifies who owns the copyright for that photograph. Woth digital media, any piece of content can be watermarked and the watermark, itself digital, can be completely invisible
What does P2P networks stands for?
peer-to-peer :a network in which all computers on the network are considered equal and can send and recieve information equally well.
Explain the "many-to-many" model?
everyone in the network can create and distribute content to everyone else without having to go through a centralized location
Explain "viral marketing." Give an example
Definition: spreading news and information about media content through word of mouth, usually via online discussion groups, chats and emails, without utilizing traditional advertising and marketing methods

Example::
What is a "virtual community? Give an example
what is created by the emergence of digital technology -- chat rooms, email, etc.
What is an avatar. Give a good example.
Definition: a graphical representation of an Internet user, which can be used in online communities or otherwise represent oneself on the Internet

Example: Palace.com asks users to do so...I know that sucks
Explain web log. What is its value?
Definition: a type of Web site on which a person posts regular journal or diary entries; the posts are arranged chronologically

Value: some computer experts have one and they are very influential, they can be easily updated without the user needing a lot of computer knowledge, family members can keep up with each other
What is a listserv?
these are automated mailing list administrators that allow for easy subscription, subscription cancellation, and sending of emails to subscribers on the email list
) Briefly describe some basic differences in copying physical media products and copying digital media.
A piece of digital media never runs out, ability to create numerous copies and make them available to anyone else

Analog has a fixed cost for making copies of the media and the product can run out
Describe how the invention of the printing press changed human communication and created mass communication.
Now copies could be made quicker and easier and probably for less. It allowed for distribution so that more people could globally get the information because there were more copies of the media
Describe why P2P networks can be powerful tools for dealing with complex computing tasks, and give a couple of examples
of how it is being used.
One can go on a discussion board and ask ones peers for help in figuring out how to make the computer perform a task.

It is being used with file sharing music and chat rooms, distribution of music in general
Describe some of the general characteristics of discussion boards, chat rooms, and e-mail and how they are used.
Discussion boards: Users can post messages that can be seen by others and they can respond to previous messages or create their own message. Series of messages are titled to let users know what they are getting themselves into

Chat rooms: Community of users can visit and talk with each other through text messages in real time...usually divided by topics

E-mail: an exchange of messages by telecommunication between towo people, a person can create a mailing list to send something to many people at one time
Why do computers make us more aware of user interface issues?
Because of their newness and relative complexity.
Why is the issue of user interface important to mass communication?
If one cannot find his/her way on to the Internet then the information stored there is essentially useless so the user interface has to be practical and intuitive and should be customizable to each individual user
Which media were important in the development of the modern user interface?
radio and television
What important impact did the television remote control have on audiences?
It enabled easy channel changing

It altered viewing habits because people could channel surf easier during commercials

Effortlessly interacting with their tvs
What is the most efficient keyboard?
the Dvorak keyboard
What is a benefit of the keyboard over other types of input such as voice?
The person is able to put the information in privately and without disturbing those around them
What is a weakness of keyboards as input devices?
It is not very intuitive --one needs literacy to understand the use and also training in order to use the interface well. Lastly it is slower than speaking into it
Why is the mouse important for mass communication?
It makes it easier for content producers to work more effectively and quickly and the audience can also effectively and quickly access the information
What is the primary benefit of a touch-sensitive screen?
It simplifies human/ computer interaction by making it incredibly intuitive
What is a potential drawback of speech-recognition systems?
In public places there is a great amount of noise that interferes with the input of information
Why do some experts claim that the desktop metaphor has outlived its usefulness?
They say that teh desktop can hinder the most efficient way of getting information for the user. The iconography can also be confusing to individuals who have not used file folders, printers, or floppy disks before
What probably had the single greatest impact in changing the public's behavior and attitude toward computers?
the graphical user interface
What is a drawback with using icons to represent items on a computer screen?
They presuppose that the user is familiar with the real-world objects they represent

Some icons have become obsolete like the floppy disk meaning save but LOOKING A WHOLE HECKA LOT LIKE THE PRINTER!!!!!(but i'm not bitter)
What are some capabilities that a windowed environment allows the audience to do?
They allow users to have layers of information on a topic or topics

Two different pages of information can be compared line by line

Stream two videos side by side
What is a role that interactive maps and timelines can play in online news sites?
60% of the reason that people do not follow international news said it was because they did not know the background. So, interactive maps can give insight on the history, culture, languages and politics
What role did user interface issues have in the Microsoft trial in 1998?
Microsoft was accussed of viloating antitrust laws. There was concern that microsoft had used its near monopoly to unfairly promote Internet Explorer by making it part of their operating system
What is a primary factor in determining how "socially interactive" either the TV or PC become?
viewing distance
If TVs become more interactive and Internet-connected, what will a likely input device be for them?
a keyboard
Who developed HDTV?
NHK (Japanese Broadcasting Corporation) engineers
Why is digital TV more important for mass communication than HDTV?
It enables the convergence of computing, television, and telecommunications and the possibility of interactivity. Brings the possibility of functionality that had been experimented with or used on computers and the Web in recent years.
What types of TV programming have encouraged TV audience members to be interactive?
electronic program guides and ordering pay-per-view
What is multi-casting?
simultaneously transmitting multiple channels of compressed digital content over the television airwaves
Which general patterns can help one understand future developments in user interface?
The evolution and standardization of User Interface
Compare and contrast the defining characteristics of random access memory and sequential access memory as the terms relate to
storage technologies.
In sequential access memory the user must go through the media in the order in which they recieve it in order to find a specific information they are looking for

In random access memory the user is able to randomly obtain specific pieces of content they are looking for by doing searches, using an index, etc.
Which medium has a natural capacity for random access memory?
dictionaries, encyclopedias, and telephone books
What was an important development in being able to record sound?
the creation of the Blattnerphone
Which does Bing Crosby have to do with recording "history?"
he put his radio show on ABC so that he could use the Magnetophon. He shows were recorded and editied before put on the radio. He financed for Ampex which was a leader in the magnetic recording technology. He became their executive distributor and sold hundreds of recorders to radio stations and studios
The invention of the first videotape recorder in 1956 was important for what reason or reasons?
It had an instant replay feature which was useful for sporting event and it was quicker developed film

The use of the recorder made it possible for the journalist to edit video news even when they are close to a deadline
2What is the basis for modern post-production video and audio editing is?
time coding
What was the event that finally convinced NBC to convert to videotape for news broadcasts?
the attempted assassination on President Gerald Ford
What was the first type of storage devices for computers?
punch cards
What was the first example of an optical storage device?
CD-ROMs
What best describes the difference between optical and magnetic storage devices?
Magnetic recording uses iron-based magnetic particles for storage while optical uses light to store and read the data
What is the storage capacity for a single CD-ROM, in pages of text? Is it the largest portable type?
300,000 pages of text, more than an hour of audio or half an hour of video

no
What does DVD stands for?
digital video disk or digital versatile disk
Which are the characteristics of DVDs?
Can hold an entire two hour length film

Provide better audio and visual

has 540 lines of resolution

Viewers can choose the language they view it in
What relatively new product will fundamentally alter the relationship between the TV viewer and broadcaster?
personal video recorders
What is one reason it is necessary to compress digital data?
Twisted-pair copper wires do not have the capactiy to transmit large amounts of data
What does MPEG stand for?
Motion Pictures Experts Group
Describe briefly what MPEG does and how it works.
transforms a stream of discrete samples captured from the original audio and video into a stream of data that takes less space than the original but is just as clear to the eye or ear. Exploits characteristics of human perception that allow people to fill in missing data as well as some statistical redundancies in the sampled data. It compresses the video or audio by removing any redundant information from one frame of video to the next
What are the common MPEG formats?
MPEG-2 what is being distributed via current terrestrail DTV broadcasts

MPEG-4 object-oriented digital video in which the individual components of a digital video stream can be encoded with additional information

MPEG-21 the convergence of all existing MPEGs
Which MPEG format is currently an important next generation format?
MP3
What are the important points regarding the widespread use of the MP3 format for digital music?
Has become a de facto standard for high- quality digital audio distributed via the Internet. Their small size makes it easy to transport and copy

Significantly challenged conventional wisdom on copyright and intellectual property rights

Pricing structure is being revisited because of the nearly eliminated manufacturing and distributed costs
What are search engines? Portals? Spiders? Intelligent agents?
Search engines- tools for locating content on the Web

Portals - gateways into Web content

spiders - search the Web for content and accept site registrations and thus compile databases

intelligent agents - software robots that act autonomously on behalf of another entity
What is a problem with current search engines?
None of them include all of the Web pages
The development of content-based systems have helped searches for what types of material?
visual and audio content based on the attributes of the content
What is Columbia Newsblaster used for?
It is a natural language processing system designed as a tool for summarizing news from the Internet. It provides links to live news sources and articles, then classifies, summarizes, and presents the summaries.
What is a bit? A byte?
byte: the most common base unit used to measure computer storage and information, it consists of eight bits, or some combination of 0s and 1s, to form letters, numbers, and all modes of computer information that are displayed

bit - one 8th of a byte
What is a gigabyte? Terabyte? Exabyte? Megabyte?
gigabyte: 1024 megabytes

terabyte: 1024 gigabytes

extrabyte: 1024 petabytes

megabyte: 1024 kilobytes
Does the text author think that DVDs will likely replace CD-ROMs as the primary portable storage technology?
yes
MP3 is short for what?
Motion Pictures Experts Group-1, Audio Layer III
What is the ultra-small technology that is currently in the early stages of development but that holds great promise for changing
our world?
nanotechnology
What was the first optical storage technology to be able to store entire movies?
DVD
What does PVR stands for?
Personal Video Recorders
Describe why products such as TiVo, ReplayTV, and UltimateTV will have an affect on advertisers and why this is important to broadcasters.
With these devices, consumers will be able to essentially skip through the commercials which means that the adverstisers who are paying for the show to air are not getting the tv time that they are paying for which means that they may back out of working with broadcasters which would hurt the broadcaster.
What is the practice of putting advertisers goods directly into shows for money called?
product placement
What are some examples of immersive media?
Personal AudioCast which is refers to immersive audio

3D Visualizations

360-Degree Photography

Virtual Reality
What are EPG's?
electronic program guides - guides available on television that provide program listigns and some simple interactivity such as ordering pay-per-view programs through the television or buying CDs or DVDs of music or shows that are listed
What name is given to the merging of TVs and PCs?
PC/TV
What company was sued by the U.S. Department of Justice and 18 states for violating anti-trust laws?
Microsoft
What does GUI stand for?
graphical user interface
What is a mouse? What was it originally made of?
mouse: allows the computer user to easily manipulate data in the computer, pointing and clicking as desired

It was originally made of wood
What is the definition of user interface?
the junction between a medium of communication and the people who use it
Is digital television technically possible today?
no
How PCs and TVs are used depend on both user interface issues and on business decisions made by major corporations.
true
Is it thought that PCs and TVs will eventually merge into one device?
yes
Have most media organizations online today been leading the way in providing cutting-edge interactive material to audiences?
yes
1Can speech recognition devices today recognize most normal speech with a high degree of accuracy?
no
If handwriting technology can recognize someone's natural writing style, will it likely become the input method of choice for people?
its very possible
Is the computer mouse the most intuitive interface device we have today?
no
Was the need for multimedia computers recognized very early on by computer engineers?
no
Did television play a role in preparing the public mentally for interacting with computers
somewhat but not accurately