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33 Cards in this Set

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trait
in genetics, a category within which alternate characteristics, such as height
and eye color, can be observed
dihybrid cross
a cross between individuals that involves the pairing of
contrasting traits
dominant
referring to an allele that masks the presence of another allele for the
same characteristic
F generation
1
the offspring of cross-pollinated P1 generation plants
F generation
2
the offspring of self-pollinated F1 generation plants
genetics
the field of biology devoted to understanding how traits are passed
from parents to offspring
genotype
the genetic makeup of an organism
genotypic ratio
the probable ratio of genotypes produced by a cross
heredity
the transmission of traits from parents to their offspring
heterozygous
referring to a gene pair in which the two alleles do not code for
the same trait
homozygous
referring to a gene pair in which the two alleles code for the same
trait
incomplete dominance
an inheritance relationship that occurs when both
alleles influence the phenotype
law of independent assortment
law stating that pairs of genes separate
independently of one another in meiosis
law of segregation
law stating that pairs of genes separate in meiosis and each
gamete receives one gene of a pair
molecular genetics
the study of the structure and function of chromosomes
and genes
monohybrid cross
a cross between individuals that involves one pair of
contrasting traits
P
1
a strain obtained through self-pollination
phenotype
the external appearance of an organism that is determined by the
individuals genotype
phenotype frequency (phenotypic ratio)
a ratio stating the number of times
a specific phenotype occurs in a population in a single generation
pollination
the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma of a flower of the
same species
probability
the number of times an event is expected to happen divided by the
number of opportunities for an event to happen
Punnett square
a model used to establish the probabilities of the results of a
genetic cross
pure
ability to always pass on a specific trait to offspring
recessive
referring to an allele that is masked by the presence of another allele
for the same characteristic
self-pollination
pollination involving the same flower, flowers on the same
plant, or two genetically identical plants
stigma
an expanded apex of a pistil, supported by the style; the part of the pistil
that receives pollen; female reproductive parts of a flower
strain
denotes a plant that is pure for a certain trait
testcross
the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a
homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype
allele-
an alternative form of a gene
anther
the microsporangium of an angiosperm in which pollen grains are produced; the male reproductive organs of a flower
codominance
an inheritance relationship in which neither of 2 alleles of the same gene totally masks the other
complete dominance
an inheritance relationship in which one allele is completely dominant over the other; both Bb & BB have the same phenotype
cross-polination
a reproductive process in which pollen from 1 plant is transferred to the stigma of another plant