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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
arteriole
small artery
Bowman capsule
cup-shaped capsule surrounding each glomerulus
calyx or calix
(plural: calyces or calices)
cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis
catheter
tube for injecting or removing fluids
cortex
outer region; the renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney (cortical means pertaing to the cortex)
creatinine
a waste product of muscle metabolism; nitrogenous waste excreted in urine
electrolyte
a chemical that carries an electrical charge in a solution. examples are potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+)
erythropoietin (EPO)
a hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells
filtration
passive process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter or other material. blood pressure forces materials through the filter. about 180 quarts of fluid are filtered from the blood daily, but the kidney returns 98 to 99 percent of the water and salts. only about 1.5 quarts (1500mL) of urine are excreted daily
glomerulus (plural: glomeruli)
tiny balls of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in cortex of kidney
hilum
depression or pit in that part of an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
kidney
one of two bean-shaped organs located behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region
meatus
opening or canal
medulla
inner region; the renal medulla is the inner region of the kidney (medullary means pertaining to the medulla)
micturition
urination; the act of voiding
nephron
the combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration reabsorption, and secretion take place in the kidney
nitrogenous waste
substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine
potassium (K+)
a salt (electrolyte) secreted from the bloodstream into the renal tubules to leave the body in urine
reabsorption
in this process, the renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream
renal artery
carries blood to the kidney
renal pelvis
central collecting region in the kidney
renal tubule
microscopic tube in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration. in the renal tubule, the composition of urine is altered by the processes of reabsorption and secretion
renal vein
carries blood away from the kidney
renin
an enzymatic hormone synthesized, stored and secreted by the kidney; it raises blood pressure by influencing vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels)
sodium (Na+)
a salt (electrolyte) regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys
trigone
triangular area in the bladder where the ureters enter and the urethra exits
urea
major nitrogenous waste product excreted in urine
ureter
tube leading from each kidney to the bladder
urethra
tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the body
uric acid
nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine
urinary bladder
sac that holds urine
urination
process of expelling urine; also called micturition
voiding
emptying of urine from the urinary bladder; urination or micturition
cali/o
calic/o
calyx (calix)
cyst/o
urinary bladder
glomerul/o
glomerulus (collection of capillaries)
meat/o
meatus
nephr/o
kidney
pyel/o
renal pelvis
ren/o
kidney
trigon/o
trigone (region of the bladder)
ureter/o
ureter
urethr/o
urethra
vesic/o
urinary bladder
albumin/o
albumin (a protein in the blood)
azot/o
nitrogen
bacteri/o
bacteria
dips/o
thirst
ket/o
keton/o
ketone bodies (ketoacids and acetone)
lith/o
stone
noct/i
night
olig/o
scanty
-poietin
substance that forms
py/o
pus
-tripsy
to crush
ur/o
urine (urea)
urin/o
urine
-uria
urination, urince condition
glomerulonephritis
inflammation of the kidney glomerulus
interstitial nephritis
inflammation of the renal interstitium (connective tissue that lies between the renal tubules)
nephrolithiasis
kidney stones (renal calculi)
nephrotic syndrome
a group of symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in the urine (also called nephrosis)
polycystic kidneys
multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) within and upon the kidney
pyelonephritis
inflammation of the renal pelvis and renal medulla
renal cell carcinoma (hypernephroma)
cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood
renal failure
failure of the kidney to excrete wastes and maintain its filtration function
renal hypertension
high blood pressure resulting from kidney disease
Wilms tumor
malignant tumor of the kidney occurring childhood
bladder cancer
malignant tumor of the urinary bladder
diabetes insipidus
inadequate secretion or resistance of the kidney to the action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
diabetes mellitus
inadequate secretion or improper utilization of insulin
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
measurement of urea levels in blood
creatinine clearance test
measures the rate at which creatine is cleared from the blood by the kidney
CT scan
x-ray image with detailed cross-sectional views of organs and tissues
intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
x-ray image of the kidneys and ureters after injection of contrast into a vein
kidneys, ureters, and bladder (KUB)
x-ray examination (without contrast) of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder
renal angiography
x-ray examination (with contrast) of the vascular system (blood vessels) of the kidney
retrograde pyelogram (RP)
x-ray images of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder after injecting contrast through a urinary catheter into the ureters
voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)
x-ray record (with contrast) of the urinary bladder, ureters, and urethra while the patient is expelling urine
ultrasonography
process of imaging urinary tract structures using high frequency sound waves
radioisotope scan
image of the kidney after injecting into the bloodstream a radioactive substance (isotope) that concentrates in the kidney
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
a magnetic field and radio waves produce images of the kidney and surrounding structures in all three planes of the body
cystoscopy
direct visual examination of urinary bladder with an endoscope (cystoscope)
dialysis
process of separating nitrogenous waste materials from the bloodstream when the kidneys no longer function
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
shock waves crush urinary tract stones, which then pass from the body in urine
renal angioplasty
dilation of narrowed areas in renal arteries
renal biopsy
removal of kidney tissue with microscopic examination by a pathologist
renal transplantation
surgical transfer of a complete kidney from a donor to recipient
urinary catherterization
passage of a flexible, tubular instrument through the urethra into the urinary bladder