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192 Cards in this Set

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bone head
a rounded knoblike end of a long bone, seperated from the shaft of the bone by a narrow portion (the neck of the bone)
neck
a constricted or narrow section that connects with the head, as in the neck connecting to the head or neck of the femur
tuberosity
an elevated, broad, rounded process of a bone, usually for attachment of muscles or tendons
trochanter
large bony process located below the neck of the femur, for attachment of muscles
condyle
a knucklelike projection at the end of a bone; usually fits into a fossa of another bone to form a joint
crest
a distinct border or ridge; an upper, elevated edge as in the upper part of the hip bone (the iliac crest); generally a site for muscle attachment
spine
a sharp projection from the surface of a bone, similar to a crest; for example, the spine of the scapula (shoulder blade), used for muscle attachment.
Bone depression
concave, indented area, or opening in a bone. They help to form joints or serve as points of attachment for muscle
sulcus
a groove or depression in a bone, a fissure
sinus
an opening or hollow space in a bone, as in the paranasal sinuses or the frontal sinus
fossa
a hollow or shallow concave depression in a bone
foramen
a hole within a bone that allows blood vessels or nerves to pass through, as in the foramen magnum of the skull that allows the cranial nerves to pass through it
frontal bone
the frontal bone forms the forehead and the upper part of the bony cavities that contain the eyeballs. The frontal sinuses are located in this bone, just above the area where the frontal bone joines the nasal bones
parietal bones
Just behind the frontal bones (posterior to the frontal bones) are the two parietal bones. They form most of the top and upper sides of the cranium
occipital bone
the single occipital bone forms the back of the head and the base of teh skull. The occipital bone contains the foramen magnum through which the spinal cord passes
temporal bones
the two temporal bones form the lower sides and part of the base of the skull. These bones contain the middle and inner ear structures. They also contain the mastoid sinuses.
Mastoid process
Immediately behind the external part of the ear; it projects downward and serves as a point of attachment for muscles.
sphenoid bone
a long, bat-shaped bone that is located at the base of the skull in front of the temporal bones. It extends completely across the middle of the cranial floor, joining with and anchoring the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal and ethmoid bones. The sphenoid bones form part of the base of the eye orbits.
ethmoid bone
lies just behind the nasal bone, in front of the sphenoid bone. It also forms the front of the base of the skull, part of the eye orbits, and the nasal cavity. The ethmoid bone also contains the ethmoid sinuses
mandibular bone
the mandible, is the lower jaw bone. It is the largest, strongest bone of the face and is the only movable bone of the skull.
Maxillary bones
the two maxillary bones (maxillae) are the bones of the upper jaw. They are fused in the midline by a suture. Also form the hard palate. Contains the maxillary sinuses, and the sockets for the teeth along the lower margin.
Zygomatic bones
the two zygomatic bones - one on each side of the face- form the high part of the cheek and the outer of the eye orbits
nasal bones
the two slender nasal bones give shape to the nose by forming the upper part of the bridge. The nasal bones meet at the midline of the face; they also join the frontal bone, the ethmoid bone, and the maxillae
lacrimal bones
paper thin and shaped somewhat like a fingernail. They are located at the inner corner of each eye, forming the sidewall of the nasal cavity and the middle wall of the eye orbit. The lacrimal bones join the cheek bones on each side to form the fossa, which houses the tear, or lacrimal, duct
vomer
a thin, flat bone that forms the lower portion of the nasal septum. It joins with the sephoid, palatine, ethmoid and maxillary bones.
palatine bones
shaped like the letter L: they have a vertical and horizontal portion. The vertical portion of the palatine bones forms the sidewall of the back of the nasal cavity. The horizontal portion joins in the midline to form the back part of the roof of the mouth.
nasal conchae
complete the nasal cavity by forming the side and lower wall.
cervical vertebrae
First 7 bones of the spine. Identified as C1-C7
thoracic vertebrae
The second 12 bones of the vertebrae. Connect with the ribs and are identified as T1-T12
lumbar vertebrae
3rd segment is the lumbar vertebrae, largest, strongest portion of the spine. Identified as L1-L5
sacrum
a single triangular bone resulting from the fusion of the five individual sacral bones of the child. Located below the lumbar vertebrae
coccyx
the tailbone
true ribs
the first seven pairs of the ribs
costal cartilage
attaches the ribs to the sternum
false ribs
ribs 8-10; they connect at to the vertebrae but do not connect to the sternum
floating ribs
the last two ribs; 11 & 12 are called floating ribs. These attach to the vertebrae in the back but are completely free of attachment in the front.
sternum
the breastbone
namubrium
connects with the clavicle (collarbone) while the sides of the manubrium connect with the first pair of ribs
xiphoid process
lower portion of the sternum
clavicle
collarbone
scapula
triangle shaped bone also called the shoulder blade
humerus
the upper arm bone
radius
one of the lower two arm bones that joins the humerus above and the wrist bones below; it is on the thumb side of the the arm
ulna
second of the two lower arm bones; it is on the medial or little finger side of the arm
Olecranon process
at the end of the ulna, forms the point of the elbow
carpals
the bones of the wrist; each wrist has 8 bones; two rows of four bones each
metacarpals
the bones of the hand
phalanges
the bones of the fingers; each finger has 3; the thumb has only two
pelvis
the bony structure formed by the hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx. The pelves is the lower part of the trunk of the body and serves as a support for the vertebral column and as a conncection with the lower extremities
pelvic girdle
bony ring formed by the hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx - the bony ring that forms the walls of the pelvis
ilium
the largest of the three hip bones; it is the upper flared portion of the hip bones
the iliac crest
the upper curved edge of the ilium
ischium
lowest part of the hip bones and the strongest of the pelvic bones
pubis
the front part of the hip bones. the two bones of the bones of the pubis meet at the anterior midline of the pelvis and are connected with a cartilanginous joint
symphysis pubis
the point of connection of the two pubis bones
acetabulum
the socket that serves as the connecting point for the femur and the hip
femur
the thigh bone. The longest, heaviest and strongest bone in the body.
patella
knee bone or knee cap
tibia
the larger and stronger of the two lower leg bones. Also called the shin bone, the tibia is located on the great toe side of the lower leg
fibula
the more slender of the two lower leg bones and is lateral to the tibia. Not a weight bearing bone
tarsals
bones of the ankle; there are 7 bones
calcaneus
the heel bone; serves as a point of attachment for several of the muscles of the calf
talus
joins with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint
metatarsals
the bones of the foot
phalanges
the toes; 3 bones in each toe; big toe has two
articular cartilage
thin layer of cartilage that covers the ends of the long bones and the surfaces of the joints
bone depressions
concave, indented areas or openings in bones
bone markings
specific features of individual bones
bone processes
projections or outgrowths of bones
cancellous bone
spongy bone, not as dense as compact bone
condyle
knucklelike projection at the end of a bone
crest
distinct border or ridge
diaphysis
main shaftlike portion of a bone
epiphyseal line
a layer of cartilage that seperates the diaphysis from the epiphysis of a bone; also known as the epiphyseal plate
epiphysis
the end of a bone
false ribs
rib pairs 8-10; which connect to the vertebrae in the back but not to the sternum in the front because they join the seventh rib in the front
fissure
a groove or depression in a bone; a sulcus
flat bones
bones that are broad and thin with flat or curved surfaces, such as the sternum
floating ribs
rib pairs 11-12; which connect to the vertebrae in the back but are free of any attachment in the front
fontanelle or fontanel
space between the bones of an infant's cranium; the soft spot
foramen
hole in a bone through which blood vessels or nerves pass
fossa
hollow or concave depression in a bone
haversian canals
a system of small canals within compact bone that contain blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves
hematopoiesis
the formation and development of blood cells in the bone marrow
intercostal spaces
the spaces between the ribs
intervertebral disc
a flat, circular platelike structure of cartilage that serves as a cushion or shock absorber between the vertebrae
long bones
bones that are longer than they are wide adn with distinctive shaped ends, such as the femur
medullary cavity
the center portion of the shaft of a long bone containing the yellow marrow
ossification
the conversion of cartilage and fibrous connective tissue to bone, the formation of bone
osteoblasts
immature bone cells that actively produce bony tissue
osteocytes
mature bone cells
osteoclasts
large cells that absorb or digest old bone tissue
periosteum
the thick, white fibrous membrane that covers the surface of a long bone
red bone marrow
the soft, semifluid substance located in the small spaces of cancellous bone that is the source of blood cell production
resorption
the process of removing or digesting old bone tissue
sesamoid bones
irregular bones imbedded in tendons near a joint, as in the kneecap
short bones
bones that are about as long as they are wide and somewhat boxshaped, such as the wrist bone
sinus
an opening or hollow space in a bone; a cavity within a bone
spine
a sharp projection from the surface of a bone, similar to a crest
sulcus
a groove or depression in a bone; a fissure
sutures
immovable joints, such as those of the cranium
trabeculae
needlelike bony spicules within cancellous bone that contribute to the spongy appearance; their distribution along lines of stress add to the strength of the bone
trochanter
large bony process located below the neck of the femur
tubercle
a small rounded process of a bone
tuberosity
an elevated, broad, rounded process of bone
vertebral foramen
a large opening in the center of each vertebra that serves as a passageway for the spinal cord
yellow marrow
located in the diaphysis of the long bones, yellow marrow is composed of fatty tissue and is inactive in the formation of blood cells
acetabul/o
acetabulum
-blast, blast/o
embryonic stage of development
calc/o, calc/i
calcium
calcane/o
heel bone
carp/o
wrist
-clast, -clastic
to break
clavicul/o
collarbone
coccyg/o
coccyx
cost/o
ribs
crani/o
skull, cranium
femor/o
femur
fibul/o
fibula
gen/o
to produce
humer/o
humerus
ili/o
ilium
ischi/o
ischium
kyph/o
humpback, pertaining to a hump
lamin/o
lamina
lord/o
swayback, bent
lumb/o
loins, lower back
-malacia
softening
madibul/o
madible (lower jaw bone)
mastiod/o
mastoid process
maxill/o
upper jaw
metacarp/o
hand bones
metatars/o
foot bones
myel/o
spinal cord or bone marrow
olecran/o
elbow
orth/o
straight
oste/o
bone
patell/o, patell/a
kneecap
pelv/i
pelvis
phalang/o
fingers, toes
-physis
growth, growing
-porosis
passage or pore
pub/o
pubis
rach/i
spinal column
radi/o
radiation
scapul/o
shoulder blade
scoli/o
crooked, bent
spondyl/o
vertebra
stern/o
sternum
tars/o
ankle bones
tempor/o
temples of the head
vertebr/o
vertebra
osteoporosis
porous bones, once strong bones become fragile due to the loss of bone density
osteomalacia
bones become abnormally soft due to a deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. This disease results in fractures and noticeable deformities of the weight bearing bones; in children it is called rickets
osteomyelitis
infection of the bone and bone marrow, resulting from a bacterial infection that has spread to the bone tissue through the blood
Ewing's sarcoma
a malignant tumor of the bones common to your adults, particularly boys.
osteogenic carcinoma
a malignant tumor arising from bone. Also known as osteosarcoma, it is the most common malignant bone tumor, with common sites being the distal femur, the proximal tibia and the proximal humerus
osteochondroma
the most common benign bone tumor; the femur and the tibia are most frequently involved
talipes
clubfoot
kyphosis
an abnormal outward curvature of a portion of the spine, commonly known as humpback or hunchback
lordosis
is an abnormal inward curvature of a portion of the spine, commonly known as sway back
scoliosis
an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
fracture
a broken bone, sudden breaking of a bone
open fracture or compound fracture
there is a break in the bone as well as an open wound in the skin
complete fracture
a break that extends through the entire thickness of a bone
incomplete fracture; greenstick fracture
a break that does not extend through the entire thickness of a bone; one side breaks the other side bends, as in bending a "green stick"
compression fracture
caused by bone surfaces being forced against each other; most common with osteoporosis
impacted fracture
occurs when a direct force causes the bone to break, forcing the broken end of the smaller bone into the broken end of the larger bone
comminuted fracture
occurs when the force is so great it splinters the or crushes a segment of the bone
Colles' fracture
occurs at the lower end of the radius, within 1 inch of connecting with the wrist bones
hairline fracture or stress fracture
a minor fracture in which the bone continues to be in perfect alignment; the fracture appears on an x-ray as a very thin "hair line" between the two segments; usually occurs in runners
pathological fracture
occurs when a bone, which is weakened by a preexisting disease, breaks in response to a force that would not normally cause a bone to break.
closed reduction
aligning bone fragments through manual manipulation or traction, without making an incision through the skin
open reduction
consists of realigning the bone under direct observations during surgery.
internal fixation devices
screws, pins, wires & nails; most commonly used with fractures of the femur and fractures of the joints
bone scan
involves the intravenous injection of a radioisotope and scanning by a gamma camera; often used to detect spread of cancer
bone marrow aspiration
process of removing a small sample of bone marrow from a selected site with a needle for the purpose of examining the specimen under a microscope
dual photon absorptiometry
noninvasive procedure that involves beaming a minimal amount of radiation through the bones. A computer evaluates the findings and these are interpreted by the physician
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
DEXA is a noninvasive procedure that measures bone density.
C1, C2, C3, C4, C5
cervical vertebrae 1-5
DEXA
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
DIP
distal interphalangeal (joint)
Fx
fracture
L1, L2, L3...
lumbar vertebra
MCP
metacarpophalangeal (joint)
MTP
metatarsophalangeal (joint)
PIP
posterior interphalangeal (joint)
S1
sacrum
T1, T2, T3...
thoracic vertebra 1, 2, 3...
THR
total hip replacement
TKR
total knee replacement
TMJ
temporomandibular joint