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65 Cards in this Set

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Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
first to observe live microorganisms
known as the father of microbiology
made improvements to the 1st microscope and got 300X magnification
most of pathogenic fungi are
dimorphic
micrometer
is equal to 0.000001m

micro indicates that the unit following should be divided by 1 million
nanometer
is equal to 0.000000001m
1 meter equals how many centimeters
100 cm
1 metere equals how many micrometers
1000 micrometers
1 micrometer equals how many nanometers
1000 nanometers
Size of Protozoa
100 micrometers
Size of Yeast
8 micrometers
Size of Bacteria
1-5 micrometers
(some are much longer than wide)
Rickettsia
0.4 micrometers
intracellular bacterium, gram negative
Chlamydia
0.25 micrometers
causes syphillis
Mycoplasma
0.25 micrometers
gram negative
causes variety of pnemonia, urinary tract infections
bacteria contains both
DNA and RNA
Viruses contain
DNA OR RNA
never both
compound light microscope
has a series of lenses and uses visible light to observe specimens
uses white light
magnification
ocular lenses and objective lenses
resolution
AKA resolving power
is the ability of the lens to distinguish fine detail and sructure
Resolution for a light Microscope
0.2 micrometers
Contrast
stains change refractive index
refractive index
a measure of the light bending ability of a medium
as you go up in magnification, what do you need to adjust
light, need more of it and adjust it by using substage iris diaphgram lever
as magnification goes up, what happens to the lenses
they get smaller which is why we have to add more light
immersion oil
has same refractive index as glass
helps us preserve the direction of light rays at the highest magnification
brightfield microscope
what we use, simplest of all optical microscope illumination
dark objects appear against a bright background
darkfield microscope
used to examine live microorganisms, objects are visible against a dark background
What microscope should you use to view spirochetes?
darkfield microscope
spirochete
a corkscrew shaped bacterium with axial filaments, type of spirilla bacteria
Treponema pallidum
spirochete that causes syphillis
Borrelia burgdorferi
spirochete that causes lyme disease
Fluorescence Microscope
absorbs UV light and emits visible light, used a lot in clinical labs
immunofluorescence
a diagnostic tool using antibodies labeled with fluorochromes and viewed through a fluorescence microscope
the smaller the wavelength
the higher the resolution
prokaryotes
have no cell organelles
electron microscope
uses electrons and electromagnetic lenses to view specimens, there are 2 types
2 types of electron microscopes
scanning electron
transmission electron
transmission electron microscope
a electron microscope that provides high magnification 10,000-100,000X of thin sections of a specimen
scanning electron microscope
an electron microscope that provides 3D views of a specimen magnified 1000-10,000X
staining
simply means to color the microorganism with a dye that emphasizes certain structures
fixing
in slide prep: the process of attaching the specimen to the slide
smear
thin film of material containing microorganisms spread over the surface of a slide
Technique for preparing a slide for light microscopy
1) Smear
2) Air Dry
3) Heat Fix
Basic Dyes
cationic chromophore
(positive charged)
Acidic Dyes
Anionic Chromophore
(negative charged)
Chromophore
stains are salts composed of positive and negative ions, one of which gets colored called a
Negative Staining
a procedure that results in a colorless bacteria against a stained background
the bacteria repels the stain
3 types of staining techniques
simple
differential
special
simple stain
uses a single basic dye and sometimes a mordant
mordant
substance added to a staining solution to make it stain more intensely
type of mordant we will commonly use
iodine
differential stains
twp types
react differently with different types of bacteria and can be used to distinguish them
types of differential stains
acid fast stain
gram stain
Differential Stains use what type of dye?
basic dye
gram stain
differential stain that classifies bacteria into 2 groups: gram positive and gram negative
gram positive
bacteria that retain the color of the primary stain after the alcohol attempts to decolorize it

stains a dark purple or violet
gram negative
bacteria that loses the dark violet or purple color after decolorization

stains pink
Steps to make a gram stain
1) heat fixed smear is covered with a primary stain, a basic purple dye
2) Dye is washed off, mordant is added
3) Slide is washed with a decolorizing agent
4) Alcohol is rinsed off and stained with a basic red dye
negative staining is used for
bacteria with capsules, which is a slime layer around the bacteria
Acid Fast Stain
a differential stain used to identify bacteria that are not decolorized by acid-alcohol

cells that retain a basic stain in the presence of acid alcohol
which dye can be used as a simple stain?
any basic dye
usually methylene blue, safranin, crystal violet
Acid Fast Stains are used to identify what type of bacteria
myobacterium
Special Stains
used to color and isolate specific parts of microorganisms
Negative staining for capsules
uses basic stain and negative stain to test for the presence of a capsule
flagella staining
requires a mordant to make the flagella wide
endospore stain
heat is required to drive the stain into it