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20 Cards in this Set

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Transformation
A change in the phenotype and genotype due the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
Bacteriophages
A virus that infects bacteria.
Phages
Another word for a virus that infects bacteria.
Double Helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.
Semiconservative Model
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one newly made strand.
Origins of Replication
Sites where the replication of a DNA molecule begins.
Replication Fork
A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
DNA Polymerases
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork by the addition of nucleotides to the existing chain.
Leading Strand
The new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' -> 3' direction.
Lagging Strand
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.
DNA Ligase
A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of a new DNA fragment to the 5' end of growing chain.
Primer
An already existing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis.
Primase
An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to maket he primer.
Helicase
An enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at the replication forks.
Single-Strand Binding Protein
During DNA replication, molecules that line up along the unpaired DNA strands, holding them apart while the DNA strands serve as templates for the synthesis of complimentary strands of DNA.
Mismatch Repair
The cellular process that uses special enzymes to fix incorrectly paired nucleotides.
Nuclease
A team of enzymes that hydrolyze DNA and RNA into their component nucleotides.
Nucleotide Excision Repair
The process of removing and then correctly replacing a damaged segment of DNA using the undamaged strand as a guide.
Telomeres
The protective structure at each end of a eukaryotic chromosome (tends to be repetitive DNA).
Telomerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the the lengthening of telomeres (includes a molecules of RNA that serves as a template for new telomere segments).