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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
90% of cell cycle
growth and DNA relication
can be divided into subphases: G1, S, G2
G1 phase "first gap"
a cell grows
chromosome consists of long, thin chromatin fibers made of DNA and associated protein
RNA molecules are being transcribed from genes that are switched on
S phase (synthesis of DNA)
cell continues to grow as it copies its chromosomes
chromosome is replicated
2 exact copies (aka sister chromatids) are produced and held together by proteins along their length
growth continues
G2 phase "second gap"
prepares for cell division
growth continues
last part of interphase
cell division
mitosis divides the nucleus and distributes its chromosomes to the daughter nuclei
can be divided into subphases: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
changes occur in nucleus and cytoplasm
in nucleus: chromatids become tightly coiled and folded and chromosomes are observable with light microscope
nucleoli disappears
in cytoplasm: mitotic spindle forms and centrosomes move away from each other
nuclear envelope fragments
kinetochore fibers from opposite ends of the mitotic spindle atach to the kinetochores of the sister chromatids
chromosome moves toward midline
a cell's endowment of DNA
it's genetic information
Somatic Cells
all body cells except the reproductive cells
sperm cells and egg cells (half as many chromosomes as somatic cells)
DNA-protein complex organized into a long, thin fiber
Sister Chromatids
replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II
the narrow "waist"
the centralized region joining two sister chromatids
division of the nucleus
division of the cytoplasm
in animal cells: cytokinesis involves formation of a cleavage furrow (pinches cell in two)
microtubules extend from centrosomes in radial arrays
a specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
protein and DNA structure in regoin of centromere where microtubules attach
contains motor proteins
centromeres of the chromosme is aligned at the metaphase plate along with the centromeres of the other chromosomes
Metaphase Plate
an imaginary plane that is equidistanat between the spindle's two poles
the sister chromatids (now considered to be individual chromosomes) separate and move to opposite poles
chromatin fiber of chromosome uncoils and is surrounded by re-forming nuclear membrane
nonkinetochore microtubules elongate cell more and daughter nuclei form at the two poles of the cell
Nonkinetochore microtubules
push poles apart by sliding past microtubules from the opposite pole
Kinetochore Microtubules
move chromosomes to metaphase plate and separate chromosmes as motor proteins of kinetochores "walk" toward the pole and the microtubules disassemble
Centrosome and centrioles
region of mitotic spindle formation