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27 Cards in this Set

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Define Photosynthesis.
It is the process in which light energy is converted into chemical energy.
Light Dependant Reactions
* Capture of photons.a
* Use the energy to produce ATP and NADPH.
Define Calvin Cycle
The formation of organic molecules.
Leaf Structure.
Cuticle
Mesophyl -Vascular bundle
-Sheath bundle
Stoma (opening)
What are chloroplasts?
Organelles where photosynthesis takes place.
Structure of a Chloroplast
Thylakoids (organized in granum)
Granum
Stroma
Outer membrane
Inner membrane
What are thylakoids?
Thylakoids contain pigments for capturing light and the machinery to produce ATP.
Where do light dependant reactions take place?
In the Thylakoid in the chloroplast.
Light and Reducing Power
Light dependant ractions of photosynthesis use the energy of light to reduce NADP to NADPH and manufacture ATP.
Energy in photons
The highest energy is in short wave lengths.
Highest intensity gamma rays
Least intensity radio waves.
Absorption Spectra
Photon absorption depends on its wavelength and also on the chemical nature of the molecule it hits.
What are pignments?
Pigments are molecules that absorb light in the visible range.
What types of pigments are there?
Chlorophyll; Absorbs the photons by means of exitation.
Carotenoids; Absorb wavelengths that are not efficiently absorbed by chlorophyll.
Chlorophyll(A)R Group?
-CH3
Chlorophyll(B)R Group?
-CHO
Which are the Light Dependant Reactions?
1. Primary photoevent.
2. Charge Separation
3. Electron Transport
4. Chemiosmosis
Define saturation point.
Phosynthesis output increases linearly at low intensies but lessens at higher intensities.
Define Photosystem.
Is a network of pigments that channel exitation energy by any of the molecules to the reaction center.
Define Reaction center.
Allows photon exitation to move away from the chlorophylls and is the key conversion of light to chemical energy.
Cyclic photophosphorylation
* Used by bacteria.
* Reaction center (P870)
* Electron is recycled to chlorophyll.
Non-Cyclic photophosphorylation
* Used by plants.
* Photosystems 1&2 generate power to reduce NAD to NADH with enough left over to produce ATP.
* Ejected electrons end up in NADPH
Where does the calvin cycle occur?
In the stroma of the chloroplast.
Secion 1; Calvin cycle.
The calvin cycle begins when a carbon atom from Co2 (Carbon fixation) is given to a five(5)-carbom molecule. The resulting six(6)-carbom molecule is unstable and splits into two three(3)-carbon molecules.
Section 2; Calvin Cycle.
The energy from the ATP and the hydrogens from the NADPH are added to the two three(3)-carbon molecules. The now rediced three(3)-carbon molecules either combine to make glucose or other molecules.
Section 3; Calvin Cycle.
Most of the reduced three-carbon molecules are used to regenerate the five(5)-carbon molecules (the starting material), thus completing the cycle.
Calvin Cycle Results.
With three full turns of the cycle, three molecules of carbon dioxide enter, a molecure of glyceraldehude 3-phosphate (G3P) is produced, and three molecules of RuBP are regenerated.
Photorespiration
Photorespiration results in decreased yields of photosynthesis. c4 and CAM plants circumvent this by modifications of leaf structure and increasing the CO2 concentration.

C4 Plants isolate CO2 reproduction.

CAM plants isolate it temporarily.