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84 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Cloninger speaks of the tendency to continue to pursue a goal in spite of obstacles as being a matter of ________.
persistence
For Freud, ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are currently aware are in the ______ mind.
conscious
What is Freud's term for the unconscious efforts by the ego to prevent unacceptable impulses from reaching consciousness?
defense mechanisms
In Carl Rogers's theory, our perception of our abilities, behaviors, and characteristics is known as ________.
self conept
Many have compared Freud's idea of the mind to an iceberg. If that were the case and you were standing on the deck of a ship in Alaska, what part of the mind would you see above the water?
ego
Carolyn took home some printer paper from the office. Later, she felt guilty for stealing it so she brought some paper to work to replace what she took. Freud would suggest that Carolyn's ________ was influencing her motives and behavior.
superego
The job of the _________ is to find practical ways for the _________ to get its pleasure needs met without offending the morality of the ________.
ego Id superego
According to Jung, the memories and ideas common to all of humankind represent that __________.
collective unconscious
When you accept someone-faults and all-regardless of whether or not you like the individual or approve of his or her lifestyle, Rogers suggests that you are exhibiting ________.
unconditional positive regard
For Freud, thoughts and feelings that are well below the surface of awareness and cannot normally be recalled are in the ______ mind.
unconscious
Aesthetics, fantasy, and ideas are most closely associated with which superfactor?
Openness
When Anna looks at some modern artwork at the museum, she often thinks she sees human figures or faces and likes to make up stories about them. When she tells the stories to her friend, her friend says that the stories reflect Anna's unconscious thoughts. In psychological terms, what Anna does is most similar to ______.
Projective Test
According to Albert Bandura, a person's belief about his or her skills and ability to perform certain behaviors is known as ________.
self-efficacy
According to your textbook, which of the following personality factors has the highest level of heritability?
right-wing authoritarianism
Humanists believe that our motivation is ultimately due to ________.
self-actualization
An investigation of students' housing preferences would probably show that single rooms are preferred by _______whereas suites are preferred by _______.
introverts; extraverts
Which of Freud's followers believed that feelings of inferiority are central to personality development?
Alder
Mei is Chinese American. She is very loyal to her family. Her sister lives with her, and she mails money back to China to her father and younger brother. Mei's way of life is typical of someone who comes from a culture that is _________.
collectivistic
In the discussion of Gordon Allport's central traits, your text points out that whether or not traits are viewed as causing behavior, they aren't always accurate in predicting behavior because ________.
the situations in which we find ourselves exert power over our behavior, thoughts, and feelings
Skinner and Watson believed that personality is the result of ____________.
classical and operant conditioning and observational learning
Which of the following statements is criticism that one might legitimately make about the humanistic perspective of personality?
It paints too idealistic a picture of humanity, ignoring negative aspects of human nature.
A person's responses to a projective test are thought to reflect ____________.
what is going on in an individual's personality
The ______ controls the satisfaction of the id's drives in the external world.
ego
Donita is angry with her boss so she leaves work a little early in order to run an extra mile before it gets dark. Which defense mechanism is Donita employing?
sublimation
Cheri went to see a psychologist, who showed her several detailed black and white pictures and asked her to explain what was going on in them. The psychologist was using the ________.
Tat
What are the Big Five personality traits?
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
________ is credited with formulating client-centered therapy.
Rodgers
Mahmoud was just told that his father has cancer. Mahmoud's first response is that there must be a mistake and he demands that the doctor repeat his tests. Which defense mechanism is at work here?
denial
Anthony is sick of writing papers and studying for tests, but he knows he needs a college degree if he wants to be successful in his chosen career. So every morning Anthony gives himself a dressing down-in essence yelling at himself-to make himself get out of bed and go to classes, and every evening he does the same thing to get himself to do his work. According to Freud, which personality structure is in control here?
super ego
The perceived source of control over one's life is ____________.
the locus of control
Which of the "Big Five" is most highly associated with Jeffrey Gray's behavioral activation system?
extraversion
The unique and relatively stable ways in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels is called __________.
personality
The field of _____________ is devoted to the study of just how much of personality is due to inherited traits.
behavioral genetics
The results of personality tests are offered in the form of a(n) ________.
personality profile
According to your text, if we define a trait narrowly, it better predicts behavior, but ____________.
a narrow trait applies to a broader range of situations
Some theorists suggest that Eysenck's psychoticism superfactor also includes some of the traits associated with ________, or their opposite on the continuum.
agreeableness and conscientiousness
According to Rogers, which of the following people is most likely to have a healthy personality?
someone brought up with unconditional positive regard
A(n) ________ is any of several unconscious psychological tools that helps an individual to avoid dealing with unpleasant or threatening thoughts.
defense mechanism
According to Hans Eysenck, a person who is high on the ________ dimension of personality would have a greater proclivity toward developing fears than an individual who was low on that same dimension.
neuroticism
Jeromy has been having an affair with another woman. One afternoon his wife came home later than usual and Jeromy became angry-accusing his wife of infidelity. Which defense mechanism is behind Jeromy's accusation?
projection
Which of the following BEST describes the concept of interactionism?
Traits, situations, and their interactions affect thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
A personality that consisted of only the ego and the id would be completely ______.
amoral
As part of an application for a job, Dan is asked to complete some psychological tests including one in which he responds true or false to items such as "I feel sad most of the time," or "I had a good childhood." What type of psychological test is Dan taking?
an inventory
In Sigmund Freud's theory, the _______ operates according to the pleasure principle.
ID
The _____________ theory of personality has its basis in the theories of learning and focuses on the effects of environment on one's personal characteristics and actions.
learning
Ted is friendly, loves to tells jokes at parties, and is perceived by others as warm and considerate. On which two of the Big Five traits would you expect Ted to obtain high scores?
agreeableness and extraversion
A person's responses to a projective test are thought to reflect ____________.
what is going on in an individual's personality
________ is the belief that a person's behavior is governed not by internal traits but by the situation.
Situationism
Which term was given to psychoanalysts who broke away from strict interpretation of Freud's theory and developed theories of their own that were based upon Freud's work?
neo-Freudians
According to ________ the particular situation we find ourselves in determines our behavior.
situationism
Aesthetics, fantasy, and ideas are most closely associated with which superfactor?
openness
Which psychological test asks the subject to tell a story based on a picture of one or more people in which it is unclear what is going on?
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
People who were rated as being high on the _________ personality trait were more likely to engage in highly stimulating pursuits or occupations.
sensation-seeking
Projective tests make use of ________ stimuli.
ambigius
Which theory of personality was partially born as a reaction against the psychodynamic perspective?
humanistic perspective
According to Jung, the memories and ideas common to all of humankind represent that __________.
collective concicousness
Which of the following BEST describes the concept of interactionism?
Traits, situations, and their interactions affect thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
Shanda is afraid of failing one of her final exams, primarily because she thinks the professor gives hard exams and so, no matter how much studying she does, it won't matter. Cognitive theorists would suggest that Shanda ____________.
has an external locus of control
Which of the "Big Five" is most highly associated with Jeffrey Gray's behavioral activation system?
extraversion
Which type of attachment do most American children seem to have?
secure
Which one of the following activities was associated with individuals who rated high on the sensation-seeking dimension of personality?
sending angry emails
From the sociocognitive perspective, people have expectations which are a powerful influence on how they think, feel and behave-and consequently on personality. These influences are called ________.
expectancies
Unconditional positive regard is MOST important to the theory of ______.
Rogers
The _____________ theory of personality has its basis in the theories of learning and focuses on the effects of environment on one's personal characteristics and actions.
humanistic
The results of personality tests are offered in the form of a(n) ________.
The results of personality tests are offered in the form of a(n) ________.
Which assessment technique requires people to respond to unstructured or ambiguous stimuli?
projective
Which of the following is one of the dimensions of personality associated with Hans Eysenck?
psychoticism
People who were rated as being high on the _________ personality trait were more likely to engage in highly stimulating pursuits or occupations.
sensation-seeking
What is one criticism of projective tests?
They have low validity and reliability.
The ______ controls the satisfaction of the id's drives in the external world.
ego
A relatively consistent characteristic that exists across situations is called ________.
a personality trait
Sometimes an individual responds to a personality inventory by choosing "I agree" to every question, regardless of the question's content. This particular phenomenon is called ________.
acquiescence
Sociability, neuroticism-anxiety, impulsive sensation-seeking, activity, and aggression-hostility are the traits associated with ________.
Zukerman's alternative five
When Candace ordered a hot fudge sundae and a diet soda, she told herself that the calories from the ice cream really were not a big deal because the diet soda sort of balanced it all out. Which of Freud's defense mechanisms is motivating Candace?
rationalization
For Freud, the only personality structure present at birth is the ______.
ID
Tony has devised a test in which people look at clouds and talk about what they see. What type of test would psychologists call this?
projective
A statistical technique that is designed to see whether traits are strongly associated with each other is called _______.
factor analysis
Some theorists suggest that Eysenck's psychoticism superfactor also includes some of the traits associated with ________, or their opposite on the continuum.
agreeableness and conscientiousness
When anxiety-provoking memories are prevented from reaching conscious awareness, such as not remembering lying to parents, it is called ________.
repression
According to Jung, the memories and ideas common to all of humankind represent that __________.
collective unconscious
For Freud, ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are currently aware are in the ______ mind.
conscious
Carl Rogers believed people question themselves and experience negative effects on their self-concept when they receive ______.
conditions of worth
From the sociocognitive perspective, people have expectations which are a powerful influence on how they think, feel and behave-and consequently on personality. These influences are called ________.
expectancies
Which term was given to psychoanalysts who broke away from strict interpretation of Freud's theory and developed theories of their own that were based upon Freud's work?
neo-Freudians