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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
equation for photsynthesis
light + 6H20 + 6CO2 --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
generic form for carbs
CH20 or (CH20)n
definition of a pigment
any molecule that is able to absorb the energy from light only within a narrow range of wavelengths
pigments in photosynthesis
(name and color)
chlorophyll a & b (green)
carotenoids (red, orange or yellow)
energy absorbed by these two special pigments
(name and wavelength)
chlorophyll a molecules
P680 and P700
Pigments for each Photosystem

PSI: P700
Photophosphorylation (def)
the process of making ATp from ADP and Pi( Phtophorylation) using energy derived from light
Step 1
*e- trapped by P680 in PSII are energized
*2e- gain E
Step 2
*2e- passed to primary electron acceptor
primary e- acceptor
Step 3
*e- passed through electron transport chain
*e-s loos E
*ferredoxin, cytochrome, non proteins containing iron
e- trans chain
Step 4
*E given off in e-trans chain used to convert ADp to ATP
*about 1.5 ATP
Step 5
*e- reenergized and passed to a diff primary electron acceptor
Step 6
*2e- combine with NADP+ & H+ to make NADPH (coenzyme)
Step 7
*2e- from PSII are in NADPH
*H2) splits and gives back e-s to PSII
*a manganese containing protein complex catalyzes the reaction
Light Reaction EQU
H20 + ADP + Pi + NADP+ + light ----> ATP + NADPH + O2 + H+
cyclic photophosphorylation
*energized e- from PS I join with protein carrier and generate APT as they pass long the e- trans chain
* e- return to PS I
*primitive form of photosynthesis
Calvin (Benson) Cycle
Carbon Reduction Cycle
Light Dependent Rxn
Dark Rxn
*fixes CO2
*produces glucose
*repeated 6 times using 6 CO2 molecules
Calvin Cycle
Step 1
*6 CO2 combine with 6 RuBP to produce 12 PGA
Calvin Cycle
Step 2
* 12 ATP and 12 NADPH are used to convert 12 PGA to 12 PGAL
(ADP,Pi, and NADP+ are released then re energized in non cyclic photophosphorylation
Calvin Cycle
Step 3
*6 ATP are used to convert 10 PGAL to 6 RuBP
(reenergizes allowign the cycle to repeat)
Calvin Cycle
Step 4
Carbohydrate synthesis
*2 remaing PGAL from step 2 are use dto buil glucose (or frutose or maltose)
Dark Equation
6CO2 + 18 ATP + 12 NADPH + H+ ----> 18 ADP + 18 Pi + 12NADP+ + 1 glucose
Organelle where light and dark rxm occur
(sectin for each rxn)

light: phylacoids
dark: stroma
stroma (def)
outside phospholipid bilayer membrane enclosign liquid

contain enzymes for dark rxm
thylacoid (def)
membrane layers in chloroplast

contain light absorbign pigmetns and enzymes
granum (def)
stack of thlacoids
Chemiosmotic Theory
describes the mechanism by which ADP is phorphorylated to ATP
Step 1
H+ ion accumulatre inside thylacoids

photolysis-H_ created go inside the thylacoid
H+ also come from stroma
Step 2
A pH and electrical gradient across the thylacoid membrane is created

H+ causes and increase in Ph and positive E
Step 3
ATP synthase generate ATP

ATP allows for H+ to flow through the thylakoid membrane and out to the stroma
passage of H+ give E for ADP-->ATP
3H+ for 1 ATP
most common protein
2 fixes
fixes CO2 adn O2
fixation of O2

probs: CO2 fixign reduced & O2+RuBP doesn't make glucose
near chlorplasts to break down products of phtoresporation
mesophyll cells
absobs C03
C4 Photosynthesis
CO2 combines with PEP to form OAA
(fixing enzyme: PEP carboxylase)
OAA is converted into malate
malatate converted into pyruvate adn CO2
pyruvate back to mesophyll cells where converted back to PEP
bundle sheath cells
malate converted into pyruvate adn CO2
why C02 to bundle sheath cells?
increase the efficency of phtosynthesis

BSC dont come in contact with intercellular space-very little O2 reaches them
CO2 to BSC allows rubisco to fix it adn not O2 instead
C4 climate adn why
hot dry
reduce the time that the stomatat are open, reduces H20 loss
4 diff btw CAM and C4
1) OAA to malic acid (not malate)
2)malic acid to vacuole (not BSC)
3) stromata open at night.
4) Stromata clsoe durign day (malic acid out of vacuole adn converted abck to OAA)
CAM, y day v night?
photosynthesis still occurs in day, tbu wtih stromata close reducing H20 loss