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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
pieces of information about something; facts or opinions
BELIEFS
global evaluations toward some object or issue
ATTITUDES
different evaluations of the same attitude object. implicit versus explicit
DUAL ATTITUDES
automatic and nonconscious evaluative responses
IMPLICIT ATTITUDES
controlled and conscious evaluative responses
EXPLICIT ATTITUDES
an attribute that is perceived by others as broadly negative
STIGMA
the tendency for people to come to like things simply because th or encounter them repeatedly
MERE EXPOSURE EFFECT
a type of learning in which. through repeated pairings. a neutral stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
a stimulus (e.g., meat powder) that naturally evokes a particular response (salivation)
UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS
a naturally occurring response (e.g., salivation)
UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE
a stimulus (e.g.. Pavlov·s bell) that initially evokes no response
NEUTRAL STIMULUS
a neutral stimulus that, through repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to evoke a conditioned response
CONDITIONED STIMULUS
a response that, through repeated pairings, is evoked by a formerly neutral stimulus
CONDITIONED RESPONSE
OPERANT CONDITIONING a type of learning in which people are more I ikely to repeat behaviors that have been rewarded and less likely to repeat behaviors that have been punished
OPERANT CONDITIONING (INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING)
a type of learning in which people are more likely to imitate behaviors if they have seen others rewarded ror performing them, and less likely to imitate behaviors if they have seen others punished for performing them
SOCIAL LEARNING (OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING, IMITATION, VICARIOUS LEARNING)
the finding that people's attitudes become more extreme as they reflect on them
ATTITUDE POLARIZATION
the idea that relationships among one person (PI, the other person (0), and an attitude object (X) may be either balanced or unbalanced
BALANCE THEORY (P-O-X THEORY)
the theory that inconsistencies produce psychological discomfort, leading people to rationalize their behavior or change their attitudes
COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY
the finding that when people suffer or work hard or make sacrifices, they Vlill try to convince themselves that it is worthwhile
EFFORT JUSTIFICATION
cognitive dissonance experienced after making a difficult choice, typically reduced by increasing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and decreasing the atractiveness of rejected alternatives
POST-DECISION DISSONANCE
the idea that although some choice is better than none, more choice is not always better than less choice
TYRANNY OF CHOICE
how easily something comes to mind
ACCESSIBILITY
the problem of inconsistency between attitudes (A) and behaviors (B)
A-B PROBLEM
the finding that once beliefs form, they are resistant to change, even if the informati on on which they .ere based is discredited
BELIEF PERSEVERANCE
the general term for how people attempt to deal with traumas and go back to functioning effectively in life
COPING
(assumptions) about reality
ASSUMPTIVE WORLDS
the idea that beliefs playa central role in helping people cope with and recover from misfortunes
COGNITIVE COPING
comparing oneselfto people who are worse off
DOWNWARD COMPARISON