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148 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Before the 1970s, social psychology was dominated by the doctrine of:
behaviorism
______ focuses on how people interpret the causes of events, such as external pressures or internal traits
Attribution Theory
A movement in social psychology that began in the 1970s that focused on thoughts about people and about social relationships
SOCIAL COGNITION
Human beings have a brain about the size of a _________, and it weighs about __________
large grapefruit; 3 pounds
A term used to describe people's reluctance to do much extra thinking
COGNITIVE MISER
________ a standard measure of effortful control over responses, requiring participants to identify the color of a word (which may name a different color)
STROOP TEST
____________ the finding that people have difficulty overriding the automatic tendency to read the word rather than name the ink color
STROOP EFFECT
At least five elements distinguish automatic from controlled processes:
awareness, intention, control, effort, and efficiency
___________organized packets of information that are stored in memory
KNOWLEDGE STRUCTURES
______ are subject to deliberate control, so it can be difficult or even impossible to avoid having certain thoughts that have been cued. A
Automatic thoughts
The pervasiveness, interconnectedness, and accessibility of any learned knowledge structure is largely determined by
the frequency with which it is encountered, imagined, and used
(Lecture and Book) _____ are knowledge structures that represent substantial information about a concept, its attributes, and its relationships to other concepts
SCHEMAS
____________ are knowledge structures that define situations and guide behavior
SCRIPTS
pIanting or activating an idea in someone's mind
PRIMING
whether messages stress potential gains (positively framed) or potential losses (negatively framed)
FRAMING
focuses on the positive, such as how your teeth will be stronger and healthier if you brush and floss them every day
GAIN-FRAMED APPEAL
focuses on the negative, such as the potential for getting cavities if you do not brush and floss your teeth every day
LOSS-FRAMED APPEAL
gain-framed appeals are more effective when targeting behaviors that
prevent the onset of disease,
loss-framed appeals are more effective when targeting behaviors that
detect diseases that people may already have but not be aware of
the "what the heck" effect that occurs when people indulge in a behavior they are trying to regulate after an initial regulation failure
COUNTERREGULATION
When people want to suppress a thought, their mind sets up two processes.
One keeps a lookout for the unwanted thought. The other redirects away from the unpleasant thought
People who are trying to overcome vices are
better off not suppressing unwanted thoughts of the things they crave
The paradoxical effects of thought suppression have been linked to a variety of psychological disorders, especially
anxiety disorders
Research has shown that _____ and ______ are more effective than suppression
distraction and even rumination
The causal explanations people give for their own and others' behaviors, and for events in general
ATTRIBUTIONS
Heider said most . Explanations fall into one of two major categories:
(a) internal factors (b) external factors
Internal, unstable attributions involve:
ability
Ability attributions are very important because they:
invoke relatively permanent aspects of the self.
Internal, unstable attributions involve:
effort.
Peoplt from collectivist cultures emphasize _____, whereas people from individualistic cultures emphasize _____
effort, ability
External, stable attributions point to:
the difficulry of the task.
External and unstable attributions involve:
luck.
The self-serving bias is an important feature of:
self-presentation
Self-presentation is about:
trying to influence the attributions that other people make about you.
Related to the self-serving bias is the tendency for individuals to _________ how much they contributed to a group project
overestimate ho'
Actors tend to attribute their own behavior to the _____ (____)
situation (external)
Observers tend to attribute actors' behavior to the_____ (____)
actors (internal)
Actors tend to make _________ attributions.
external
Observers make _____
internal attributions.
(Lecture and Book) The tendency to take credit for success but deny blame for failure
SELF-SERVING BIAS
(Lecture and Book) The tendency for actors to make external attributions and observers to make internal attributions
ACTOR/OBSERVER BIAS
This bias is found in individuals from both collectivist and individualist cultures
FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR (CORRESPONDENCE BIAS)
The tendency for observers to attribute other people's behavior to internal or dispositional causes and to downplay situational causes
FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR (CORRESPONDENCE BIAS)
The tendency for observers to make internal attributions (fundamental attribution error) about whole groups of people
ULTIMATE ATTRIBUTION ERROR
There are at least four explanations for the fundamental attribution error
1.) behavior is more noticeable than situational factors

2,) people assign insufficient weight to situational causes.

3.) people are cognitive misers.

4.) language is richer in trait-like terms to explain behavior than in situational terms.
Actors are _______ ________than observers to state reasons for how they acted
more likely
Actors are also _____ _______ to explain their acts by citing their beliefs, whereas observers point to t the actors' desires:
more likely
People judge others by their ctions but judge themselves by their _______
intentions
People regard others as ______ but do not regard themselves as ___________ to the same degree, a:
conforming/conformist
"Do others behave similarly in this situation?"
consensus
Does the person usually behave this way in this situation?"
consistency
People generally make an external attribution when consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness are a all
high
People generally make an internal attribution when consistency is _____ but distinctiveness and consensus are _____
high, low
For something to be the cause of a behavior, it must be present the behavior occurs and absent when the behavior does not occur
COVARIATION PRINCIPLE
in attribution theory, whether other people would do the same thing in the same situation
CONSENSUS
in attribution theory, whether the person typically behaves this way in this situation
CONSISTENCY
in attribution theory, whether the person would behave differently in a different situation
DISTINCTIVENESS
an attribution theory that uses three types of information: consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness
ATTRIBUTION CUBE
mental shortcuts that provide quick estimates about the likelihood of uncertain events
HEURISTICS
(Lecture and Book) the tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the extent to which it resembles the typical case
REPRESENTATIVENESS HEURISTIC
The four most common heuristics:
a) representativeness, (b) availability, (c) simulation, and (d) anchoring and adjustment
The woman who kept her own name was judged to be more:
Intelligent and ambitious
Women who took their husband's name were judged as more
caring and emotional (but less intelligent and ambitious)
The ease with which relevant instances come to mind is influenced not only by the ____ ___ but also by factors such as how _____ and ______ the event is
actual frequency; salient or noticable
More easily imagined events are judged to be ______ _____ than other events.
more likely
(Lecture and Book) The tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the ease with which relevant instances come to mind
AVAILABILITY HEURISTIC
The tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the ease with which you can imagine (or mentally simulate) it
SIMULATION HEURISTIC
The simulation heuristic addresses these "if only" thoughts, also called counterfactual thoughts.
simulation heuristic
Information overload can result from a:
1.) high rate of new information being added 2.) contradictions in available information, 3.)low signalto-noise ratio 4.) lack of an efficient method for comparing and processing different types of information
(too much irrelevant information compared to the amount of relevant information),
low signalto-noise ratio
Having too much information to comprehend or integrate
INFORMATION OVERLOAD
the average American man has had sex with __ partners but the average American woman has had only __ partners
20, 6
People generally have access to two types of information:
(a) statistical information from a large f number of people (b) case history information from a small number of people
the actual likelihood of an event being true ______ when it becomes more specific
declines
The representativeness heuristic provides one possible explanation for the conjunction error.
representativeness heuristic
(Lecture and Book) the tendency to notice and search for information that confirms one's beliefs and to ignore information that disconfirms one's beliefs
CONFIRMATION BIAS
(Lecture and Book) the tendency to see an event as more likely as it becomes more specific because it is joined with elements that seem similar to events that are likely
CONJUNCTION FALLACY
(Lecture and Book) the tendency to overestimate the link between variables that are related only slightly or not at all
ILLUSORY CORRELATION
an illusory correlation that occurs after exposure to only one unusual behavior performed by only one member of an unfamiliar group
ONE-SHOT ILLUSORY CORRELATION
(Lecture and Book) the tendency to ignore or underuse base rate information and instead to be influenced by the distinctive features of the case being judged
BASE RATE FALLACY
Hot hand and Gambler's fallacy biases may both stem from the same source
representativeness heuristic
the tendency for gamblers who get lucky and their luck will continue
HOT HAND
(Lecture and Book) the tendency to believe that a particular chance event is affected by previous events and that chance events will "even out" in the short run
GAMBLER'S FALLACY
(Lecture and Book) the tendency to overestimate the number of other people who share one's opinions, attitudes, values, and beliefs
FALSE CONSENSUS EFFECT
The ______ provides one possible explanation of the false consensus effect.
availability heuristic
It I appears that people ________ consensus when it comes to their undesirable characteristics but _______ consensus when it comes to their desirable characteristics
overestimate; underestimate
the statistical tendency for extreme Scores or extreme behavior to be followed by others that are less extreme and closer to average
STATISTICAL REGRESSION (REGRESSION TO THE MEAN)
AII distortions are in the direction most…
helpful for selfesteem.
(Lecture and Book) the false belief that one can influence certain events, especially random or chance ones
ILLUSION OF CONTROL
(Lecture and Book) thinking based on assumptions that don't hold up to rational scrutiny
MAGICAL THINKING
when something becomes impure or unclean
CONTAMINATION
imagining alternatives to past or present events or circumstances
COUNTERFACTUAL THINKING
the false belief that it is better not to change one's first answer on a test t even if one starts to think that a different answer is correct
FIRST INSTINCT FALLACY
imagining alternatives that are better than actuality
UPWARD COUNTERFACTUALS
imagining alternatives that are worse than actuality
DOWNWARD COUNTERFACTUALS
One important difference between regrets and counterfactuals:
regrets are feelings, counterfactuals are thoughts
feeling sorry for one's misfortunes, limitations, losses, transgressions, shortcomings, or mistakes
REGRET
Evolutionary psychologists have argued that when it comes to the really lmportant decisions, those involving survival and reproduction,
people make relatively few stupid decisions
debiasing examples include:
1.)encouraging people to consider multiple alternatives

2.) to rely less on memory

3.) to use explicit decision rules

4.) to search for disconfirmatory information

5.) to use meta-cognition
literally means "thinking about \ thinking."
Meta-cognition
reducing errors and biases by getting people to use controlled processing rather than automatic processing
DEBIASING
reflecting on one's own thought processes
META-COGNITION
People think about _____ _____ more than any other topic, and probably more than about all other topics combined.
other people
People think about other people in order to ________, _________, or _________ other people.
be accepted by, compete with, avoid
The human mind is designed to participate in society, and this means its primary job is
dealing with other people.
(Lecture and Book) People generally prefer to conserve effort by relying on _____________ of thought when they can.
automatic modes
A violation of expectancies sparks _________ .
Conscious thinking,
At least three main types of goals guide how people think:
1.) Find the right answer to some problem or question.

2.) Reach a particular, preferred conclusion.

3.) Reach a pretty good answer or decision quickly.
The four elements that distinguish auromatic from controlled processes are
intention, effort, control, and efficiency.
_______ is the tendency for frequently or recently activated concepts to come to mind more easily.
Priming
______ is how something is presented.
Framing
In the counterregulation or "what the heck" effect, dieters eat more if they ________.
believe they have broken their diets than if they are hungry.
__________ are the inferences people make about events in their lives.
Attributions
The three types of covariation information are
Consensus
Consistency
Distinctiveness
The ___________ suggests that when people estimate how frequent or likely an event is, they use a starting point (called an anchor) and then make adjustments up and down from this · .
anchoring and adjustment heuristic
______ and _______ criteria can result in biased counts of sexual partners.
Estimation and shifting criteria
People generally pay the most attention to ___________ information.
case history
The _______________ (also called the better-thall-average effect and the Lake Wobegon effect) describes the finding that people tend to underestimate the number of people who share their most prized characteristics and abilities.
false uniqueness effect
One major evolutionary purpose of thinking is to decide how to
respond when one's goals are blocked.
The concept of contamination is related to what two things:
1.) The irrational assumption that two objects that touch each other pass properties to one another. 2.) The irrational assumption that things that resemble each other share basic properties
More often than not, heuristics provide __________, or at least answers that are _______.
correct answers, answers that are good enough.
The tendency to seek evidence that agrees with our position and dismiss evidence that does not.
The Confirmation Bias
The Confirmation Bias sways us to...
• favor evidence that agrees with our position
• believe the future will bring new evidence to support it
• cling stubbornly and passionately to our stance
• adopt positions from traditions, religions and ideologies
The tendency to take credit for desirable outcomes and blame others for undesirable ones.
The Self-Serving Bias
The tendency to mentally upgrade or downgrade an object when comparing it to a contrasting object.
The Contrast Bias
The tendency to underestimate the time is takes to complete a task.
The Planning Fallacy
The tendency for people to believe the world is "just" and therefore people "get what they deserve."
The Just-World Bias
The tendency to find losses twice as painful as we find gains pleasurable.
The Loss Aversion Bias
The tendency to do (or believe) things because many other folks do.
The GroupThink Bias
The tendency for beautiful people to receive more rewards than less attractive people.
The Beautiful People Bias
The tendency to recall an item that "stands out like a purple cow" more easily than other items in a group.
The Von Restorff Effect
The tendency to judge harmful actions as worse, or less moral, than equally harmful inactions.
The Omissions Bias
The tendency to marvel over coincidences and ignore probabilities .
The Neglect-of-Probability Bias
The tendency to place too much attention on information, even when it's barely relevant.
The Information Overload Bias
The tendency to "anchor" (rely too heavily) on one piece of information when making a decision.
The Anchoring Effect
The tendency for people to overestimate the duration or intensity of their future feelings.
The Impact Bias
The tendency for people to cozy up to people who look like themselves and pick on those who don't.
The Look-Alikes Bias
The tendency to discount or disbelieve an important and uncomfortable fact.
The Denial Bias
Avoiding a fact by lying.
Denial of Fact
Avoiding personal responsibility by blaming, minimizing or justifying.
Denial of Responsibility
Avoiding pain and harm by stating he/she was in a different state of awareness (such as alcohol or drug intoxication or on occasion mental health related).
Denial of Awareness
Avoiding looking at one's decisions leading up to an event or not considering one's pattern of decision-making and how harmful behavior is repeated.
Denial of Cycle
Denial of denial involves thoughts, actions and behaviors which bolster confidence that nothing needs to be changed in one's personal behavior.
Denial of Denial
The tendency to look at things from the point of view of your profession and forget a broader perspective.
The Déformation Professionelle Bias
The tendency to demand much more to give up an object than you would be willing to pay to acquire it.
The Endowment Effect
The tendency to inaccurately link an action and an effect.
The Illusory-Correlation Bias
The tendency for investors to react too slowly to changes in the market.
The Conservatism Bias
The tendency to view two options as more dissimilar when evaluating them together than separately.
The Distinction Bias