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44 Cards in this Set

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What is the purpose of a theory?
used to explain data and generate hypotheses that can be tested by research.
What are three basic theoretical issues on which developmental scientists differ?
the relative importance of heredity and environment
the active or passive character of development
the existence of stages of development
Define mechanistic model.
views development as a passive, predictable response to stimuli.
Define organismic model.
views development as internally initiated by an active organism and as occurring in a sequence of qualitatively different stages.
What are five theoretical perspectives on human development?
psychoanalytic
learning
cognitive
evolutionary/sociobiological
contextual
Describe the psychoanalytic perspective and what are some theories representative of it?
sees development as motivated by unconscious emotional drives or conflicts

Freud
Erikson
Describe the learning perspective and give examples of representative theories.
views development as a result of learning based on experience.
Watson's and Skinner's behaviorism
Bandura's social learning theory
Describe the cognitive perspective and give examples of representative theories.
concerned with thought processes Piaget's cognitive-stage theory
the information-processing approach
the cognitive neuroscience approach
Describe the evolutionary perspective and give examples of representative theories.
focuses on the adaptiveness, or survival value, of behavior.
represented by E. O. Wilson
Describe the contextual perspective and give representative theories.
focuses on interaction between the individual and the social context. Bronfenbrenner
Vygotsky
What ethical issues may arise in research on humans?
right to informed consent
avoidance of deception
protection from harm and loss of dignity
guarantees of privacy and confidentiality
Define microgenetic study.
allows researchers to directly observe change by repeated testing over a short time.
Name and define the 2 most common designs used to study age-related development.
cross-sectional--compares age groups
longitudinal--assess changes in a sample over time
sequential--combines these.
Name the 3 types of experiments and how they differ in level of control/generalizability.
laboratory--easiest to control and replicate
field--more generalizable beyond the study situation
natural--useful in situations in which true experiments would be impractical or unethical.
Define correlational study.
quantitative research design intended to discover whether a statistical relationship between variables exists. only an experiment can determine cause and effect relationship.
Name and define 2 qualitative research methods.
Case study--study of an individual.
Ethnographic study--in-depth study of a culture which uses a combination of methods including participant observation.
What are 3 forms of data collection?
self-reports (diaries, interviews, and questionnaires)
behavioral and performance measures observation
Margaret Mead's research in Samoa
A) established the universality of adolescent rebellion.
B) challenged the inevitability of adolescent rebellion.
C) reaffirmed universal sex roles for men and women.
D) demonstrated that around the world boys are more likely than girls to rebel against their parents.
B
Margaret Mead's research underscores all of the following about human development except
A) the study of people is abstract and esoteric.
B) a cross-cultural perspective can reveal which patterns of behavior are universal and which are not.
C) theory and research are two sides of the same coin.
D) observations of human behavior may be influenced by the researcher's background, values, and experiences.
A
Which of the following is not a basic issue for theorists in explaining development?
A) the relative weight given to heredity and environment
B) whether people are active or passive in their own development
C) whether development is continuous or occurs in stages
D) the role of researchers' inherent values and personal experiences
D
A mechanistic model of college students' drinking behaviors would look at
A) environmental influences, such as advertising and consequences imposed by the college administration for drunkenness.
B) hereditary factors, such as a genetic predisposition to alcoholism in the family.
C) the types of friends students chose, for example, those who like to party or those who like to drink.
D) interactions between biological and environmental influences.
A
As you stand in line at the grocery store, you notice the checker frowns and is rude to customers in line ahead of you. You decide to try out what you are learning in your psychology class, so when it's your turn, you say to her, "Rough day, huh?" She immediately smiles at you, thanks you for your concern, and you notice she is nice to all the customers behind you. You leave the store feeling good for cheering her up. This illustrates
A) an organismic approach.
B) a mechanistic approach.
C) bidirectional influence.
D) interactional influence.
C
It was Erik Erikson, not Freud, who stressed the importance of
A) unconscious thoughts, feelings, and motivations.
B) the role of childhood experiences in forming personality.
C) the presence from birth of sexual urges.
D) the influences of society and culture on development.
D
Negative reinforcement
A) is the same thing as punishment.
B) tends to suppress the likelihood of a targeted behavior.
C) tends to increase the likelihood of a targeted behavior.
D) is not as powerful in modifying behavior as either positive reinforcement or punishment.
C
The information processing approach to development
A) suggests that development occurs in four qualitatively different stages.
B) suggests that children's cognitive development occurs when new information is internalized through the dual processes of assimilation and accommodation.
C) attempts to explain cognitive development by analyzing the processes involved in perceiving and handling information.
D) uses brain imaging and studies of people with brain injuries to understand cognitive processes.
C
Miranda is doing a research study using Bronfenbrenner's model and looks at all the different influences on development. In the part of her paper that talks about the macrosystem, she will focus on
A) the setting in which individuals interact with others on an everyday, face-to-face basis.
B) society's overall cultural patterns.
C) the linkages between two or more microsystems.
D) the effects of time on other developmental systems.
B
Arturo, a fourth-grader, is teaching his 8-year-old brother to put together a model airplane. First Arturo shows Abel how to set up the pieces, then how to glue pieces together. Next Arturo guides is brother's hands as they glue two more pieces together. Finally, Arturo watches Abel glue pieces by himself. Vygotsky suggested this type of learning occurs in
A) the zone of proximal development.
B) a microsystem.
C) a contextual setting.
D) modeling.
A
A social worker does a home visitation to see if the home is a safe and nurturing environment for the child. She checks for nutritious food in the refrigerator, general cleanliness, and safety concerns, and observes how mother and daughter interact. She is using which type of data collection and which type of research design?
A) self-report; case study
B) interview; ethnographic study
C) naturalistic observation; case study
D) naturalistic observation; ethnographic study
C
After years of teaching, Professor Rosen realized it was the students who disrupted her class by chatting who would say her class was boring. Professor Rosen could determine that the students disrupt class because they are bored, are bored because they aren't paying attention, or that some other factor(s) lead to both boredom and chatting in class. This underscores a basic limitation of correlational research, which is that with correlations a researcher
A) cannot establish a cause-and-effect relationship.
B) is likely to encounter problems of observer bias.
C) cannot generalize the results to other people and other situations.
D) is not able to define the variables being studied.
A
The Ethical Guidelines of the American Psychological Association ensure that research participants have all of the following protections except the right to
A) informed consent.
B) decline or withdraw from an experiment at any time.
C) privacy and confidentiality.
D) be paid for their participation.
D
A ? is a coherent set of logically related concepts that seeks to organize, explain, and predict data, while ? are possible explanations for phenomena used to predict the outcomes of research.
theory
hypotheses
? model views development as a passive, predictable response to stimuli, and ? model views development as internally initiated by an active organism.
mechanistic
organismic
Mechanistic theorists focus on ? change, and organismic theorists focus on ? change.
quantitative
qualitative
The ? perspective views development as shaped by unconscious forces.
psychoanalytic
A psychologist with a ? perspective will study observable behavior to show which aspects of the environment are controlling that behavior, while a psychologist with a ? perspective will analyze behavior’s thought processes to see how those processes change over time.
learning
cognitive
Henry, a nail-biter, is highly critical of everyone he knows. Hilda is obsessed with germs and cleanliness. According to Freudian theory, we would expect that Henry fixated in the ? stage, and Hilda fixated in the ? stage.
oral
anal
While ? theorists emphasize the predictable role of environment in causing behavior, ? theorists believe that behaviors are learned by observing and imitating models.
behaviorism
social learning
? occurs when new information fits into an existing cognitive structure; ?occurs when new information that does not fit one’s existing cognitive structures results in change.
Assimilation
Accommodation
The ? focuses on biological bases of social behavior, while Bronfenbrenner’s ? looks at the processes and contexts of development.
sociobiological theory
bioecological theory
Research that focuses on "hard" data and numerical or statistical results is referred to as ? research, and research that focuses on “soft” data, such as subjective experiences, feelings, or beliefs is ? research.
quantitative
qualitative
A test’s ? refers to whether the test measures what it claims to measure, and its ? refers to whether the results are consistent over time.
validity
reliability
The ? variable is the condition in an experiment over which the experimenter has direct control, and the ? variable is the condition that may or may not change as a result of changes in the variable.
independent
dependent
When comparing people of different age groups at the same time, a researcher is using a ? study; if the researcher studied one group of people as they aged over a period of several years, this would be a ? study.
cross-sectional
longitudinal
Vygotsky exposed children to certain learning conditions over short periods of time so he could see how much children’s performance could be improved within that short time frame. Vygotsky used ? research.
microgenetic